Bare bones head tracking shoulder cannon circuitry.

ksj

Blooded
I did something similar of Honus original Build:
wii nunchuck 4 servo control

I may have to switch to undercode's implementation:
Arduino + Wii Nunchuck [Servo Motores] - Underc0de Blog

I will try adding Honus' transister board and see if that helps, but his setup is one of the best ones I have seen.

The undercode setup saves on motor drive times and only runs the motors when you press the c or z buttons.

I was thinking with either code base you could run dual canons, however, you would need about 6 servos to do that properly. Using the third to lift the main arm to 45 degrees and then use the pan/tilt unit servos to control up/down and left/right on the cannon.
 

ksj

Blooded
I got the setup working and have posted the code in one of my other threads here.

Geez posting from a mobile sucks.
 
Last edited:

ksj

Blooded
I am still working out the bugs on mine. I have several write ups over at aliens legacy and a couple here. Anywho. What holds you up from doing it yourself?
 

Grimaldus

Unblooded
Hi thank for the reply but i know nothing when it comes to computer stuff and would be easier to get someone else to make most of it for me i pay them them and pay for post and i'll just modify the back pack shoulder cannon to suit ive been trying for ages it seem s to get it done to complete my full working suit and here in Australia no one wants to help so im on my own really
Anyway i hope to hear from you soon to maybe work something out (^_^)
 

Domlocz

Unblooded
I like to do everything on a cheap budget with things I can find in bulk or find easily. I tried for years to get this right and think I have a pretty stable version of a Shoulder cannon that tracks head movement in both Y and Z axis, and for cheap as I think I can get it with COTS items (Common Off The Shelf).
Here's the video:

It's not your typical caster cannon, but I feel the shoulder cannon is like the Jedi knight's light saber. It is built individually....and I liked the look of the 80/20 Aluminum bracketing.

I used an Arduino Uno, 2ea - 5vdc servos, an MPU6050 Arduino module (6 axis), a project box from Amazon, RJ45 (Ethernet) connectors with panel mounts, a panel mounted audio jack, a few things I had around my shop, and a 2000 maH rechargeable battery bank (the ones used for charging your phones...I will upgrade to 4000+ maH for more hours of use). I'll put the code I used in my next comment.
I joined just to compliment you on this awesome project. I have Zer0 knowledge in the art of advanced radio shack and coding field. I just wanted to make plasma prop. But THIS.. makes me want to learn how to do this black magic. Cheers
 

ksj

Blooded
The code you have posted seems to be a little bit problematic. I will edit this code with a link to the post and updated code that is working. I think it may have to do in part with some of the updates to Arduino and the libraries. Half the sites linked no longer work on the Arduino playground. Some of the readings indicate that some of the cheaper knock offs are problematic, but the calibration tool seemed to work. This is the same issue I had with some of the Honus code so I am not sure if it is me or not.
 

PredatoRay31

Blooded
Sorry everyone. I have not worked on this since. Life had other plans. I went through a crappy divorce and now I have custodial guardianship of my 5yo daughter. The best I can do is help someone do it on their own.
 

ksj

Blooded
I got it working. Sleep generally helps reset one's thinking and approach on things. I will post the working code pieces and links once I get things sufficiently redone and debugged. And please post pictures if you can get your nice daughter in costume.

This appears to be where you got your code from for i2cdev and the 6 axis controller piece.
The site and code documentation issue is not one you would know about until you had to rebuild things from scratch on a new computer months later. It was a very painful lesson for me, but my information hoarding habits saved me greatly.
 

ksj

Blooded
OK, I took your code and condensed it down. This post will be code heavy so you have been warned. I added a debounce function off of one of the adafruit example libraries that simplifies the process. I did this to separate the firing laser function so you could mount the laser in your mask and have it run on a separate switch. The base code was not working for me with an arduino or a metro. These are based on the atmega chipset and work with the arduino ide software when using the arduino uno board. I am getting some communication issues with the button presses so I am going to separate the servos on to a pca9685 servo. That code update will be forthcoming and when incorporated will substantially lower the amount of wires needed to make things work. Aesthetics and complexity need not always be mutually exclusive.

The main code
C-like:
//   Predator Shoulder Cannon v2 by: Raymond Willis 8/1/17 r.willis_pi@yahoo.com Thanks for the code.
//   This program uses 2 servos, 1 MPU6050 3 AXIS Module, 1 LED,
//   The I2CDev and MPU6050 libraries are required for this program.
//   The Servos follow the Y and Z axis of the MPU6050. The
//   Drift detection will reset unit
//   I commented as much as I can to help anyone else use this.
// Include the Bounce2 library found here :
// https://github.com/thomasfredericks/Bounce2
#include <Bounce2.h>
#include <Servo.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include "I2Cdev.h"
#include "MPU6050_6Axis_MotionApps20.h"
#include "Wire.h"
#include <Adafruit_PWMServoDriver.h>
#include <SPI.h>
#define BUTTON_PIN_2 7
#define LED_PIN 3
#define LED_PIN1 4
#define SERVOMIN  150 // this is the 'minimum' pulse length count (out of 4096)
#define SERVOMAX  550 // this is the 'maximum' pulse length count (out of 4096)
int ledState = LOW; Bounce debouncer1 = Bounce(); Bounce debouncer2 = Bounce(); Servo myservoY; Servo myservoX; Servo myservoZ; int countA = 0; int countB = 0; int posY; int posZ; int rstZ; int buttonState = LOW; int oneFlash = 1;
const int buttonPin = 2; // Mom switch pin, fires laser diode
const int ledPin = 3;  // LED
MPU6050 mpu; bool dmpReady = false; uint8_t mpuIntStatus; uint8_t devStatus; uint16_t packetSize; uint16_t fifoCount; uint8_t fifoBuffer[64]; Quaternion q; VectorInt16 aa; VectorInt16 aaReal; VectorInt16 aaWorld; VectorFloat gravity; float euler[3]; float ypr[3]; volatile bool mpuInterrupt = false;    
//pca9685 additions
int pulseWidth1 = 0;    // Amount to pulse the servo 1
int pulseWidth2 = 0;    // Amount to pulse the servo 2
int pulseWidth3 = 0;    // Amount to pulse the servo 3
Adafruit_PWMServoDriver pwm = Adafruit_PWMServoDriver();
long lastPulse1;
long lastPulse2;
long lastPulse3;
const int ledPin1 = 2;       // Control pin for LED 1
const byte ledPin2 = 3;       // Control pin for LED 2
const int servoPin1 = 9;      // Control pin for servo motor
const int servoPin2 = 11;      // Control pin for servo motor
const int servoPin3 = 10;      // Control pin for servo motor
int refreshTime = 20;  // the time in millisecs needed in between pulses
int loop_cnt=0;
int minPulse = 150;   // minimum pulse width


void setup() { pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); pinMode(buttonPin, INPUT_PULLUP); pinMode(BUTTON_PIN_2,INPUT_PULLUP); debouncer2.attach(BUTTON_PIN_2); debouncer2.interval(25); pinMode(LED_PIN,OUTPUT); pinMode(LED_PIN1,OUTPUT); digitalWrite(LED_PIN1,ledState); Wire.begin(); TWBR = 24;
  myservoY.attach(9);
  myservoZ.attach(11); // Attach Z servo to pin 11 and 9 not used: myservoX.attach(10);// Attach X servo to pin 10, not used
  Serial.begin(115200); while (!Serial); Serial.println(F("Initializing I2C devices...")); mpu.initialize(); Serial.println(F("Testing device connections...")); Serial.println(mpu.testConnection() ? F("MPU6050 connection successful") : F("MPU6050 connection failed")); Serial.println(F("Initializing DMP...")); devStatus = mpu.dmpInitialize();
  //pca9685 additions
   Serial.println("PWM Begin"); pwm.begin(); pwm.setPWMFreq(60);
// This moves all servos to minimum positions at start.  Good if you do not want overloaded servos
  pulseWidth1 = minPulse; pulseWidth2 = minPulse; pulseWidth3 = minPulse;
  // supply your own gyro offsets here, scaled for min sensitivity
  mpu.setXGyroOffset(80);  mpu.setYGyroOffset(66); mpu.setZGyroOffset(29); mpu.setZAccelOffset(1339); // 1688 factory default for my test chip 1459
  if (devStatus == 0) { Serial.println(F("Enabling DMP...")); mpu.setDMPEnabled(true);  attachInterrupt(0, dmpDataReady, RISING); mpuIntStatus = mpu.getIntStatus(); dmpReady = true; packetSize = mpu.dmpGetFIFOPacketSize(); } else { Serial.print(devStatus); Serial.println(F(")")); }
} // end void setup begin void loop
void loop() { if (!dmpReady) return; while (!mpuInterrupt && fifoCount < packetSize) { debouncer2.update();  int value2 = debouncer2.read();
       if ( debouncer2.fell() ) { ledState = !ledState; digitalWrite(LED_PIN1,ledState); } } // other program behavior stuff here if oyu want
  mpuInterrupt = false; mpuIntStatus = mpu.getIntStatus(); fifoCount = mpu.getFIFOCount();
  if ((mpuIntStatus & 0x10) || fifoCount == 1024) { mpu.resetFIFO();
  Serial.println(F("FIFO overflow!")); } else if (mpuIntStatus & 0x02) { while (fifoCount < packetSize) fifoCount = mpu.getFIFOCount(); mpu.getFIFOBytes(fifoBuffer, packetSize); fifoCount -= packetSize;
   mpu.dmpGetQuaternion(&q, fifoBuffer); mpu.dmpGetGravity(&gravity, &q); mpu.dmpGetYawPitchRoll(ypr, &q, &gravity);
    Serial.print("ypr\t"); Serial.print(ypr[0] * 180 / M_PI);
    myservoZ.write(int(ypr[0] * 180 / M_PI) + 90); // Rotation around Z
    rstZ = (ypr[0] * 180 / M_PI); // Z axis into a variable to test
    Serial.print("\t"); Serial.print(ypr[1] * 180 / M_PI);
    myservoY.write(int(ypr[1] * 180 / M_PI) + 90); // Rotation around Y
    Serial.print("\t"); Serial.println(ypr[2] * 180 / M_PI);
    myservoX.write(int(ypr[2] * 180 / M_PI) + 90); // Rotation around X

    if (rstZ > 100 || rstZ < (-100)) { countA++; if (countA >= 3) { resetMode(); } } // test if Z Axis is at max L or R, count when too far, reset
    if (rstZ < 99 && rstZ > (-99)) { countA = 0; }  // when outside L or R max, reset to 0
    buttonState = digitalRead(buttonPin); //read the firing button state
    if (buttonState == HIGH) { posY = (ypr[1] * 180 / M_PI); posZ = (ypr[0] * 180 / M_PI); //read Z, Y position
      myservoY.write(posY + 90); //stop moving and stay at last know positions
      myservoZ.write(posZ + 90);
      laserFire(); }  else if (buttonState == LOW) { analogWrite(ledPin, 0); oneFlash = 1; }
  } Serial.print("Reset Count: "); Serial.println(countA); Serial.print("Laser Fire Button: "); Serial.println(buttonState);
}  // end void loop
void dmpDataReady() { mpuInterrupt = true;}
void resetMode() { Serial.println("You must be walking around so let's reset Z Axis reference point!"); countA = 0; mpu.reset(); setup(); }
void scanMode() { Serial.println("We are in Auto Scan Mode.");
  posY = 90;                                      // set Y servo to 90 degrees
  for (posZ = 45; posZ <= 115; posZ += 1) {
    myservoZ.write(posZ);
    delay(60); }
  for (posZ = 115; posZ >= 45; posZ -= 1) {
    myservoZ.write(posZ);
    delay(60); } }
void laserFire() { if (oneFlash >= 1) {
    for (int fadeValue = 10 ; fadeValue <= 255; fadeValue += 5) { delay(10);
    analogWrite(ledPin, fadeValue); }
    analogWrite(ledPin, 255); for (int fadeValue = 255 ; fadeValue >= 0; fadeValue -= 10) {
    delay(5); analogWrite(ledPin, fadeValue); }
    analogWrite(ledPin, 0); oneFlash = 0; } }
Debounce library:
C-like:
/*
  The MIT License (MIT)

  Copyright (c) 2013 thomasfredericks

  Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of
  this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in
  the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to
  use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of
  the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so,
  subject to the following conditions:

  The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
  copies or substantial portions of the Software.

  THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
  IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS
  FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR
  COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER
  IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN
  CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
*/

/* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
  Main code by Thomas O Fredericks (tof@t-o-f.info)
  Previous contributions by Eric Lowry, Jim Schimpf and Tom Harkaway
  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * */

#ifndef Bounce2_h
#define Bounce2_h

#if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100
#include "Arduino.h"
#else
#include "WProgram.h"
#endif

// Uncomment the following line for "LOCK-OUT" debounce method
//#define BOUNCE_LOCK_OUT

// Uncomment the following line for "BOUNCE_WITH_PROMPT_DETECTION" debounce method
//#define BOUNCE_WITH_PROMPT_DETECTION

#include <inttypes.h>

/**
    @example bounce.ino
    Simple example of the Bounce library that switches the debug LED when a button is pressed.
*/

/**
    @example change.ino
    This example toggles the debug LED (pin 13) on or off when a button on pin 2 is pressed.
*/

/**
    @example bounce_multiple.ino
    Detect the falling edge of multiple buttons. Eight buttons with internal pullups. Toggles a LED when any button is pressed. Buttons on pins 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
*/

/**
    @example bounce2buttons.ino
     Example of two instances of the Bounce class that switches the debug LED when either one of the two buttons is pressed.
*/

/**
     The Bounce class.
     */
class Bounce
{
public:

/*!
    @brief  Create an instance of the Bounce class.

    @code

    // Create an instance of the Bounce class.
    Bounce() button;

    @endcode
*/
    Bounce();


/*!
    @brief  Attach to a pin and sets that pin's mode (INPUT, INPUT_PULLUP or OUTPUT).
           
    @param    pin
              The pin that is to be debounced.
    @param    mode
              A valid Arduino pin mode (INPUT, INPUT_PULLUP or OUTPUT).
    @return True if the event read was successful, otherwise false.
*/
    void attach(int pin, int mode);

    /**
    Attach to a pin for advanced users. Only attach the pin this way once you have previously set it up. Otherwise use attach(int pin, int mode).
    */
    void attach(int pin);
   

    /**
    @brief  Sets the debounce interval in milliseconds.
           
    @param    interval_millis
            The interval time in milliseconds.
    
     */
    void interval(uint16_t interval_millis);


/*!
    @brief   Updates the pin's state.

    Because Bounce does not use interrupts, you have to "update" the object before reading its value and it has to be done as often as possible (that means to include it in your loop()). Only call update() once per loop().

    @return True if the pin changed state.
*/

    bool update();

    /**
     @brief Returns the pin's state (HIGH or LOW).

     @return HIGH or LOW.
     */
    bool read();

    /**
    @brief Returns true if pin signal transitions from high to low.
    */
    bool fell();

    /**
    @brief Returns true if pin signal transitions from low to high.
    */
    bool rose();

    
     /**
    @brief Deprecated (i.e. do not use). Included for partial compatibility for programs written with Bounce version 1
    */
    bool risingEdge() { return rose(); }
     /**
    @brief Deprecated (i.e. do not use). Included for partial compatibility for programs written with Bounce version 1
    */
    bool fallingEdge() { return fell(); }
     /**
    @brief Deprecated (i.e. do not use). Included for partial compatibility for programs written with Bounce version 1
    */
     Bounce(uint8_t pin, unsigned long interval_millis ) : Bounce() {
        attach(pin);
        interval(interval_millis);
    }
   
    /**
     @brief Returns the duration in milliseconds of the current state.

     Is reset to 0 once the pin rises ( rose() ) or falls ( fell() ).
   
      @return The duration in milliseconds (unsigned long) of the current state.
     */

    unsigned long duration();


    // WIP HELD : unsigned long held();     // Returns the duration the previous state was held

protected:
    unsigned long previous_millis;
    uint16_t interval_millis;
    uint8_t state;
    uint8_t pin;
    unsigned long stateChangeLastTime;
    // WIP HELD : unsigned long durationOfPreviousState;
    virtual bool readCurrentState() { return digitalRead(pin); }
    virtual void setPinMode(int pin, int mode) {
#if defined(ARDUINO_STM_NUCLEO_F103RB) || defined(ARDUINO_GENERIC_STM32F103C)
        pinMode(pin, (WiringPinMode)mode);
#else
        pinMode(pin, mode);
#endif
    }

  private:
    inline void changeState();
    inline void setStateFlag(const uint8_t flag)    {state |= flag;}
    inline void unsetStateFlag(const uint8_t flag)  {state &= ~flag;}
    inline void toggleStateFlag(const uint8_t flag) {state ^= flag;}
    inline bool getStateFlag(const uint8_t flag)    {return((state & flag) != 0);}
};

#endif
I2cdev.h
C-like:
// I2Cdev library collection - Main I2C device class header file
// Abstracts bit and byte I2C R/W functions into a convenient class
// 2013-06-05 by Jeff Rowberg <jeff@rowberg.net>
//
// Changelog:
//      2015-10-30 - simondlevy : support i2c_t3 for Teensy3.1
//      2013-05-06 - add Francesco Ferrara's Fastwire v0.24 implementation with small modifications
//      2013-05-05 - fix issue with writing bit values to words (Sasquatch/Farzanegan)
//      2012-06-09 - fix major issue with reading > 32 bytes at a time with Arduino Wire
//                 - add compiler warnings when using outdated or IDE or limited I2Cdev implementation
//      2011-11-01 - fix write*Bits mask calculation (thanks sasquatch @ Arduino forums)
//      2011-10-03 - added automatic Arduino version detection for ease of use
//      2011-10-02 - added Gene Knight's NBWire TwoWire class implementation with small modifications
//      2011-08-31 - added support for Arduino 1.0 Wire library (methods are different from 0.x)
//      2011-08-03 - added optional timeout parameter to read* methods to easily change from default
//      2011-08-02 - added support for 16-bit registers
//                 - fixed incorrect Doxygen comments on some methods
//                 - added timeout value for read operations (thanks mem @ Arduino forums)
//      2011-07-30 - changed read/write function structures to return success or byte counts
//                 - made all methods static for multi-device memory savings
//      2011-07-28 - initial release

/* ============================================
I2Cdev device library code is placed under the MIT license
Copyright (c) 2013 Jeff Rowberg

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
THE SOFTWARE.
===============================================
*/

#ifndef _I2CDEV_H_
#define _I2CDEV_H_

// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// I2C interface implementation setting
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
#ifndef I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION
#define I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION       I2CDEV_ARDUINO_WIRE
//#define I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION       I2CDEV_BUILTIN_SBWIRE
//#define I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION       I2CDEV_BUILTIN_FASTWIRE
#endif // I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION

// comment this out if you are using a non-optimal IDE/implementation setting
// but want the compiler to shut up about it
#define I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION_WARNINGS

// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// I2C interface implementation options
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
#define I2CDEV_ARDUINO_WIRE         1 // Wire object from Arduino
#define I2CDEV_BUILTIN_NBWIRE       2 // Tweaked Wire object from Gene Knight's NBWire project
                                      // ^^^ NBWire implementation is still buggy w/some interrupts!
#define I2CDEV_BUILTIN_FASTWIRE     3 // FastWire object from Francesco Ferrara's project
#define I2CDEV_I2CMASTER_LIBRARY    4 // I2C object from DSSCircuits I2C-Master Library at https://github.com/DSSCircuits/I2C-Master-Library
#define I2CDEV_BUILTIN_SBWIRE        5 // I2C object from Shuning (Steve) Bian's SBWire Library at https://github.com/freespace/SBWire

// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Arduino-style "Serial.print" debug constant (uncomment to enable)
// -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
//#define I2CDEV_SERIAL_DEBUG

#ifdef ARDUINO
    #if ARDUINO < 100
        #include "WProgram.h"
    #else
        #include "Arduino.h"
    #endif
    #if I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_ARDUINO_WIRE
        #include <Wire.h>
    #endif
    #if I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_I2CMASTER_LIBRARY
        #include <I2C.h>
    #endif
    #if I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_BUILTIN_SBWIRE
        #include "SBWire.h"
    #endif
#endif

#ifdef SPARK
    #include <spark_wiring_i2c.h>
    #define ARDUINO 101
#endif


// 1000ms default read timeout (modify with "I2Cdev::readTimeout = [ms];")
#define I2CDEV_DEFAULT_READ_TIMEOUT     1000

class I2Cdev {
    public:
        I2Cdev();

        static int8_t readBit(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t bitNum, uint8_t *data, uint16_t timeout=I2Cdev::readTimeout);
        static int8_t readBitW(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t bitNum, uint16_t *data, uint16_t timeout=I2Cdev::readTimeout);
        static int8_t readBits(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t bitStart, uint8_t length, uint8_t *data, uint16_t timeout=I2Cdev::readTimeout);
        static int8_t readBitsW(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t bitStart, uint8_t length, uint16_t *data, uint16_t timeout=I2Cdev::readTimeout);
        static int8_t readByte(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t *data, uint16_t timeout=I2Cdev::readTimeout);
        static int8_t readWord(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint16_t *data, uint16_t timeout=I2Cdev::readTimeout);
        static int8_t readBytes(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t length, uint8_t *data, uint16_t timeout=I2Cdev::readTimeout);
        static int8_t readWords(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t length, uint16_t *data, uint16_t timeout=I2Cdev::readTimeout);

        static bool writeBit(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t bitNum, uint8_t data);
        static bool writeBitW(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t bitNum, uint16_t data);
        static bool writeBits(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t bitStart, uint8_t length, uint8_t data);
        static bool writeBitsW(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t bitStart, uint8_t length, uint16_t data);
        static bool writeByte(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t data);
        static bool writeWord(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint16_t data);
        static bool writeBytes(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t length, uint8_t *data);
        static bool writeWords(uint8_t devAddr, uint8_t regAddr, uint8_t length, uint16_t *data);

        static uint16_t readTimeout;
};

#if I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_BUILTIN_FASTWIRE
    //////////////////////
    // FastWire 0.24
    // This is a library to help faster programs to read I2C devices.
    // Copyright(C) 2012
    // Francesco Ferrara
    //////////////////////

    /* Master */
    #define TW_START                0x08
    #define TW_REP_START            0x10

    /* Master Transmitter */
    #define TW_MT_SLA_ACK           0x18
    #define TW_MT_SLA_NACK          0x20
    #define TW_MT_DATA_ACK          0x28
    #define TW_MT_DATA_NACK         0x30
    #define TW_MT_ARB_LOST          0x38

    /* Master Receiver */
    #define TW_MR_ARB_LOST          0x38
    #define TW_MR_SLA_ACK           0x40
    #define TW_MR_SLA_NACK          0x48
    #define TW_MR_DATA_ACK          0x50
    #define TW_MR_DATA_NACK         0x58

    #define TW_OK                   0
    #define TW_ERROR                1

    class Fastwire {
        private:
            static boolean waitInt();

        public:
            static void setup(int khz, boolean pullup);
            static byte beginTransmission(byte device);
            static byte write(byte value);
            static byte writeBuf(byte device, byte address, byte *data, byte num);
            static byte readBuf(byte device, byte address, byte *data, byte num);
            static void reset();
            static byte stop();
    };
#endif

#if I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_BUILTIN_NBWIRE
    // NBWire implementation based heavily on code by Gene Knight <Gene@Telobot.com>
    // Originally posted on the Arduino forum at http://arduino.cc/forum/index.php/topic,70705.0.html
    // Originally offered to the i2cdevlib project at http://arduino.cc/forum/index.php/topic,68210.30.html

    #define NBWIRE_BUFFER_LENGTH 32

    class TwoWire {
        private:
            static uint8_t rxBuffer[];
            static uint8_t rxBufferIndex;
            static uint8_t rxBufferLength;

            static uint8_t txAddress;
            static uint8_t txBuffer[];
            static uint8_t txBufferIndex;
            static uint8_t txBufferLength;

            // static uint8_t transmitting;
            static void (*user_onRequest)(void);
            static void (*user_onReceive)(int);
            static void onRequestService(void);
            static void onReceiveService(uint8_t*, int);

        public:
            TwoWire();
            void begin();
            void begin(uint8_t);
            void begin(int);
            void beginTransmission(uint8_t);
            //void beginTransmission(int);
            uint8_t endTransmission(uint16_t timeout=0);
            void nbendTransmission(void (*function)(int)) ;
            uint8_t requestFrom(uint8_t, int, uint16_t timeout=0);
            //uint8_t requestFrom(int, int);
            void nbrequestFrom(uint8_t, int, void (*function)(int));
            void send(uint8_t);
            void send(uint8_t*, uint8_t);
            //void send(int);
            void send(char*);
            uint8_t available(void);
            uint8_t receive(void);
            void onReceive(void (*)(int));
            void onRequest(void (*)(void));
    };

    #define TWI_READY   0
    #define TWI_MRX     1
    #define TWI_MTX     2
    #define TWI_SRX     3
    #define TWI_STX     4

    #define TW_WRITE    0
    #define TW_READ     1

    #define TW_MT_SLA_NACK      0x20
    #define TW_MT_DATA_NACK     0x30

    #define CPU_FREQ            16000000L
    #define TWI_FREQ            100000L
    #define TWI_BUFFER_LENGTH   32

    /* TWI Status is in TWSR, in the top 5 bits: TWS7 - TWS3 */

    #define TW_STATUS_MASK              (_BV(TWS7)|_BV(TWS6)|_BV(TWS5)|_BV(TWS4)|_BV(TWS3))
    #define TW_STATUS                   (TWSR & TW_STATUS_MASK)
    #define TW_START                    0x08
    #define TW_REP_START                0x10
    #define TW_MT_SLA_ACK               0x18
    #define TW_MT_SLA_NACK              0x20
    #define TW_MT_DATA_ACK              0x28
    #define TW_MT_DATA_NACK             0x30
    #define TW_MT_ARB_LOST              0x38
    #define TW_MR_ARB_LOST              0x38
    #define TW_MR_SLA_ACK               0x40
    #define TW_MR_SLA_NACK              0x48
    #define TW_MR_DATA_ACK              0x50
    #define TW_MR_DATA_NACK             0x58
    #define TW_ST_SLA_ACK               0xA8
    #define TW_ST_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK      0xB0
    #define TW_ST_DATA_ACK              0xB8
    #define TW_ST_DATA_NACK             0xC0
    #define TW_ST_LAST_DATA             0xC8
    #define TW_SR_SLA_ACK               0x60
    #define TW_SR_ARB_LOST_SLA_ACK      0x68
    #define TW_SR_GCALL_ACK             0x70
    #define TW_SR_ARB_LOST_GCALL_ACK    0x78
    #define TW_SR_DATA_ACK              0x80
    #define TW_SR_DATA_NACK             0x88
    #define TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_ACK        0x90
    #define TW_SR_GCALL_DATA_NACK       0x98
    #define TW_SR_STOP                  0xA0
    #define TW_NO_INFO                  0xF8
    #define TW_BUS_ERROR                0x00

    //#define _MMIO_BYTE(mem_addr) (*(volatile uint8_t *)(mem_addr))
    //#define _SFR_BYTE(sfr) _MMIO_BYTE(_SFR_ADDR(sfr))

    #ifndef sbi // set bit
        #define sbi(sfr, bit) (_SFR_BYTE(sfr) |= _BV(bit))
    #endif // sbi

    #ifndef cbi // clear bit
        #define cbi(sfr, bit) (_SFR_BYTE(sfr) &= ~_BV(bit))
    #endif // cbi

    extern TwoWire Wire;

#endif // I2CDEV_IMPLEMENTATION == I2CDEV_BUILTIN_NBWIRE
#endif /* _I2CDEV_H_ */
MPU6050.h
C-like:
// I2Cdev library collection - MPU6050 I2C device class
// Based on InvenSense MPU-6050 register map document rev. 2.0, 5/19/2011 (RM-MPU-6000A-00)
// 10/3/2011 by Jeff Rowberg <jeff@rowberg.net>
// Updates should (hopefully) always be available at https://github.com/jrowberg/i2cdevlib
//
// Changelog:
//     ... - ongoing debug release

// NOTE: THIS IS ONLY A PARIAL RELEASE. THIS DEVICE CLASS IS CURRENTLY UNDERGOING ACTIVE
// DEVELOPMENT AND IS STILL MISSING SOME IMPORTANT FEATURES. PLEASE KEEP THIS IN MIND IF
// YOU DECIDE TO USE THIS PARTICULAR CODE FOR ANYTHING.

/* ============================================
I2Cdev device library code is placed under the MIT license
Copyright (c) 2012 Jeff Rowberg

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
THE SOFTWARE.
===============================================
*/

#ifndef _MPU6050_H_
#define _MPU6050_H_

#include "I2Cdev.h"

// supporting link:  http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?&topic=143444.msg1079517#msg1079517
// also: http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?&topic=141571.msg1062899#msg1062899s

#ifdef __AVR__
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#else
//#define PROGMEM /* empty */
//#define pgm_read_byte(x) (*(x))
//#define pgm_read_word(x) (*(x))
//#define pgm_read_float(x) (*(x))
//#define PSTR(STR) STR
#endif


#define MPU6050_ADDRESS_AD0_LOW     0x68 // address pin low (GND), default for InvenSense evaluation board
#define MPU6050_ADDRESS_AD0_HIGH    0x69 // address pin high (VCC)
#define MPU6050_DEFAULT_ADDRESS     MPU6050_ADDRESS_AD0_LOW

#define MPU6050_RA_XG_OFFS_TC       0x00 //[7] PWR_MODE, [6:1] XG_OFFS_TC, [0] OTP_BNK_VLD
#define MPU6050_RA_YG_OFFS_TC       0x01 //[7] PWR_MODE, [6:1] YG_OFFS_TC, [0] OTP_BNK_VLD
#define MPU6050_RA_ZG_OFFS_TC       0x02 //[7] PWR_MODE, [6:1] ZG_OFFS_TC, [0] OTP_BNK_VLD
#define MPU6050_RA_X_FINE_GAIN      0x03 //[7:0] X_FINE_GAIN
#define MPU6050_RA_Y_FINE_GAIN      0x04 //[7:0] Y_FINE_GAIN
#define MPU6050_RA_Z_FINE_GAIN      0x05 //[7:0] Z_FINE_GAIN
#define MPU6050_RA_XA_OFFS_H        0x06 //[15:0] XA_OFFS
#define MPU6050_RA_XA_OFFS_L_TC     0x07
#define MPU6050_RA_YA_OFFS_H        0x08 //[15:0] YA_OFFS
#define MPU6050_RA_YA_OFFS_L_TC     0x09
#define MPU6050_RA_ZA_OFFS_H        0x0A //[15:0] ZA_OFFS
#define MPU6050_RA_ZA_OFFS_L_TC     0x0B
#define MPU6050_RA_SELF_TEST_X      0x0D //[7:5] XA_TEST[4-2], [4:0] XG_TEST[4-0]
#define MPU6050_RA_SELF_TEST_Y      0x0E //[7:5] YA_TEST[4-2], [4:0] YG_TEST[4-0]
#define MPU6050_RA_SELF_TEST_Z      0x0F //[7:5] ZA_TEST[4-2], [4:0] ZG_TEST[4-0]
#define MPU6050_RA_SELF_TEST_A      0x10 //[5:4] XA_TEST[1-0], [3:2] YA_TEST[1-0], [1:0] ZA_TEST[1-0]
#define MPU6050_RA_XG_OFFS_USRH     0x13 //[15:0] XG_OFFS_USR
#define MPU6050_RA_XG_OFFS_USRL     0x14
#define MPU6050_RA_YG_OFFS_USRH     0x15 //[15:0] YG_OFFS_USR
#define MPU6050_RA_YG_OFFS_USRL     0x16
#define MPU6050_RA_ZG_OFFS_USRH     0x17 //[15:0] ZG_OFFS_USR
#define MPU6050_RA_ZG_OFFS_USRL     0x18
#define MPU6050_RA_SMPLRT_DIV       0x19
#define MPU6050_RA_CONFIG           0x1A
#define MPU6050_RA_GYRO_CONFIG      0x1B
#define MPU6050_RA_ACCEL_CONFIG     0x1C
#define MPU6050_RA_FF_THR           0x1D
#define MPU6050_RA_FF_DUR           0x1E
#define MPU6050_RA_MOT_THR          0x1F
#define MPU6050_RA_MOT_DUR          0x20
#define MPU6050_RA_ZRMOT_THR        0x21
#define MPU6050_RA_ZRMOT_DUR        0x22
#define MPU6050_RA_FIFO_EN          0x23
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_MST_CTRL     0x24
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV0_ADDR    0x25
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV0_REG     0x26
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV0_CTRL    0x27
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV1_ADDR    0x28
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV1_REG     0x29
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV1_CTRL    0x2A
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV2_ADDR    0x2B
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV2_REG     0x2C
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV2_CTRL    0x2D
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV3_ADDR    0x2E
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV3_REG     0x2F
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV3_CTRL    0x30
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV4_ADDR    0x31
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV4_REG     0x32
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV4_DO      0x33
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV4_CTRL    0x34
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV4_DI      0x35
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_MST_STATUS   0x36
#define MPU6050_RA_INT_PIN_CFG      0x37
#define MPU6050_RA_INT_ENABLE       0x38
#define MPU6050_RA_DMP_INT_STATUS   0x39
#define MPU6050_RA_INT_STATUS       0x3A
#define MPU6050_RA_ACCEL_XOUT_H     0x3B
#define MPU6050_RA_ACCEL_XOUT_L     0x3C
#define MPU6050_RA_ACCEL_YOUT_H     0x3D
#define MPU6050_RA_ACCEL_YOUT_L     0x3E
#define MPU6050_RA_ACCEL_ZOUT_H     0x3F
#define MPU6050_RA_ACCEL_ZOUT_L     0x40
#define MPU6050_RA_TEMP_OUT_H       0x41
#define MPU6050_RA_TEMP_OUT_L       0x42
#define MPU6050_RA_GYRO_XOUT_H      0x43
#define MPU6050_RA_GYRO_XOUT_L      0x44
#define MPU6050_RA_GYRO_YOUT_H      0x45
#define MPU6050_RA_GYRO_YOUT_L      0x46
#define MPU6050_RA_GYRO_ZOUT_H      0x47
#define MPU6050_RA_GYRO_ZOUT_L      0x48
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_00 0x49
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_01 0x4A
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_02 0x4B
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_03 0x4C
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_04 0x4D
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_05 0x4E
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_06 0x4F
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_07 0x50
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_08 0x51
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_09 0x52
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_10 0x53
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_11 0x54
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_12 0x55
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_13 0x56
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_14 0x57
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_15 0x58
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_16 0x59
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_17 0x5A
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_18 0x5B
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_19 0x5C
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_20 0x5D
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_21 0x5E
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_22 0x5F
#define MPU6050_RA_EXT_SENS_DATA_23 0x60
#define MPU6050_RA_MOT_DETECT_STATUS    0x61
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV0_DO      0x63
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV1_DO      0x64
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV2_DO      0x65
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_SLV3_DO      0x66
#define MPU6050_RA_I2C_MST_DELAY_CTRL   0x67
#define MPU6050_RA_SIGNAL_PATH_RESET    0x68
#define MPU6050_RA_MOT_DETECT_CTRL      0x69
#define MPU6050_RA_USER_CTRL        0x6A
#define MPU6050_RA_PWR_MGMT_1       0x6B
#define MPU6050_RA_PWR_MGMT_2       0x6C
#define MPU6050_RA_BANK_SEL         0x6D
#define MPU6050_RA_MEM_START_ADDR   0x6E
#define MPU6050_RA_MEM_R_W          0x6F
#define MPU6050_RA_DMP_CFG_1        0x70
#define MPU6050_RA_DMP_CFG_2        0x71
#define MPU6050_RA_FIFO_COUNTH      0x72
#define MPU6050_RA_FIFO_COUNTL      0x73
#define MPU6050_RA_FIFO_R_W         0x74
#define MPU6050_RA_WHO_AM_I         0x75

#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_XA_1_BIT     0x07
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_XA_1_LENGTH  0x03
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_XA_2_BIT     0x05
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_XA_2_LENGTH  0x02
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_YA_1_BIT     0x07
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_YA_1_LENGTH  0x03
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_YA_2_BIT     0x03
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_YA_2_LENGTH  0x02
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_ZA_1_BIT     0x07
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_ZA_1_LENGTH  0x03
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_ZA_2_BIT     0x01
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_ZA_2_LENGTH  0x02

#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_XG_1_BIT     0x04
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_XG_1_LENGTH  0x05
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_YG_1_BIT     0x04
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_YG_1_LENGTH  0x05
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_ZG_1_BIT     0x04
#define MPU6050_SELF_TEST_ZG_1_LENGTH  0x05

#define MPU6050_TC_PWR_MODE_BIT     7
#define MPU6050_TC_OFFSET_BIT       6
#define MPU6050_TC_OFFSET_LENGTH    6
#define MPU6050_TC_OTP_BNK_VLD_BIT  0

#define MPU6050_VDDIO_LEVEL_VLOGIC  0
#define MPU6050_VDDIO_LEVEL_VDD     1

#define MPU6050_CFG_EXT_SYNC_SET_BIT    5
#define MPU6050_CFG_EXT_SYNC_SET_LENGTH 3
#define MPU6050_CFG_DLPF_CFG_BIT    2
#define MPU6050_CFG_DLPF_CFG_LENGTH 3

#define MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_DISABLED       0x0
#define MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_TEMP_OUT_L     0x1
#define MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_GYRO_XOUT_L    0x2
#define MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_GYRO_YOUT_L    0x3
#define MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_GYRO_ZOUT_L    0x4
#define MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_ACCEL_XOUT_L   0x5
#define MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_ACCEL_YOUT_L   0x6
#define MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_ACCEL_ZOUT_L   0x7

#define MPU6050_DLPF_BW_256         0x00
#define MPU6050_DLPF_BW_188         0x01
#define MPU6050_DLPF_BW_98          0x02
#define MPU6050_DLPF_BW_42          0x03
#define MPU6050_DLPF_BW_20          0x04
#define MPU6050_DLPF_BW_10          0x05
#define MPU6050_DLPF_BW_5           0x06

#define MPU6050_GCONFIG_FS_SEL_BIT      4
#define MPU6050_GCONFIG_FS_SEL_LENGTH   2

#define MPU6050_GYRO_FS_250         0x00
#define MPU6050_GYRO_FS_500         0x01
#define MPU6050_GYRO_FS_1000        0x02
#define MPU6050_GYRO_FS_2000        0x03

#define MPU6050_ACONFIG_XA_ST_BIT           7
#define MPU6050_ACONFIG_YA_ST_BIT           6
#define MPU6050_ACONFIG_ZA_ST_BIT           5
#define MPU6050_ACONFIG_AFS_SEL_BIT         4
#define MPU6050_ACONFIG_AFS_SEL_LENGTH      2
#define MPU6050_ACONFIG_ACCEL_HPF_BIT       2
#define MPU6050_ACONFIG_ACCEL_HPF_LENGTH    3

#define MPU6050_ACCEL_FS_2          0x00
#define MPU6050_ACCEL_FS_4          0x01
#define MPU6050_ACCEL_FS_8          0x02
#define MPU6050_ACCEL_FS_16         0x03

#define MPU6050_DHPF_RESET          0x00
#define MPU6050_DHPF_5              0x01
#define MPU6050_DHPF_2P5            0x02
#define MPU6050_DHPF_1P25           0x03
#define MPU6050_DHPF_0P63           0x04
#define MPU6050_DHPF_HOLD           0x07

#define MPU6050_TEMP_FIFO_EN_BIT    7
#define MPU6050_XG_FIFO_EN_BIT      6
#define MPU6050_YG_FIFO_EN_BIT      5
#define MPU6050_ZG_FIFO_EN_BIT      4
#define MPU6050_ACCEL_FIFO_EN_BIT   3
#define MPU6050_SLV2_FIFO_EN_BIT    2
#define MPU6050_SLV1_FIFO_EN_BIT    1
#define MPU6050_SLV0_FIFO_EN_BIT    0

#define MPU6050_MULT_MST_EN_BIT     7
#define MPU6050_WAIT_FOR_ES_BIT     6
#define MPU6050_SLV_3_FIFO_EN_BIT   5
#define MPU6050_I2C_MST_P_NSR_BIT   4
#define MPU6050_I2C_MST_CLK_BIT     3
#define MPU6050_I2C_MST_CLK_LENGTH  4

#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_348       0x0
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_333       0x1
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_320       0x2
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_308       0x3
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_296       0x4
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_286       0x5
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_276       0x6
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_267       0x7
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_258       0x8
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_500       0x9
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_471       0xA
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_444       0xB
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_421       0xC
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_400       0xD
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_381       0xE
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_DIV_364       0xF

#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_RW_BIT      7
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_ADDR_BIT    6
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_ADDR_LENGTH 7
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_EN_BIT      7
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_BYTE_SW_BIT 6
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_REG_DIS_BIT 5
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_GRP_BIT     4
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_LEN_BIT     3
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV_LEN_LENGTH  4

#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV4_RW_BIT         7
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV4_ADDR_BIT       6
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV4_ADDR_LENGTH    7
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV4_EN_BIT         7
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV4_INT_EN_BIT     6
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV4_REG_DIS_BIT    5
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV4_MST_DLY_BIT    4
#define MPU6050_I2C_SLV4_MST_DLY_LENGTH 5

#define MPU6050_MST_PASS_THROUGH_BIT    7
#define MPU6050_MST_I2C_SLV4_DONE_BIT   6
#define MPU6050_MST_I2C_LOST_ARB_BIT    5
#define MPU6050_MST_I2C_SLV4_NACK_BIT   4
#define MPU6050_MST_I2C_SLV3_NACK_BIT   3
#define MPU6050_MST_I2C_SLV2_NACK_BIT   2
#define MPU6050_MST_I2C_SLV1_NACK_BIT   1
#define MPU6050_MST_I2C_SLV0_NACK_BIT   0

#define MPU6050_INTCFG_INT_LEVEL_BIT        7
#define MPU6050_INTCFG_INT_OPEN_BIT         6
#define MPU6050_INTCFG_LATCH_INT_EN_BIT     5
#define MPU6050_INTCFG_INT_RD_CLEAR_BIT     4
#define MPU6050_INTCFG_FSYNC_INT_LEVEL_BIT  3
#define MPU6050_INTCFG_FSYNC_INT_EN_BIT     2
#define MPU6050_INTCFG_I2C_BYPASS_EN_BIT    1
#define MPU6050_INTCFG_CLKOUT_EN_BIT        0

#define MPU6050_INTMODE_ACTIVEHIGH  0x00
#define MPU6050_INTMODE_ACTIVELOW   0x01

#define MPU6050_INTDRV_PUSHPULL     0x00
#define MPU6050_INTDRV_OPENDRAIN    0x01

#define MPU6050_INTLATCH_50USPULSE  0x00
#define MPU6050_INTLATCH_WAITCLEAR  0x01

#define MPU6050_INTCLEAR_STATUSREAD 0x00
#define MPU6050_INTCLEAR_ANYREAD    0x01

#define MPU6050_INTERRUPT_FF_BIT            7
#define MPU6050_INTERRUPT_MOT_BIT           6
#define MPU6050_INTERRUPT_ZMOT_BIT          5
#define MPU6050_INTERRUPT_FIFO_OFLOW_BIT    4
#define MPU6050_INTERRUPT_I2C_MST_INT_BIT   3
#define MPU6050_INTERRUPT_PLL_RDY_INT_BIT   2
#define MPU6050_INTERRUPT_DMP_INT_BIT       1
#define MPU6050_INTERRUPT_DATA_RDY_BIT      0

// TODO: figure out what these actually do
// UMPL source code is not very obivous
#define MPU6050_DMPINT_5_BIT            5
#define MPU6050_DMPINT_4_BIT            4
#define MPU6050_DMPINT_3_BIT            3
#define MPU6050_DMPINT_2_BIT            2
#define MPU6050_DMPINT_1_BIT            1
#define MPU6050_DMPINT_0_BIT            0

#define MPU6050_MOTION_MOT_XNEG_BIT     7
#define MPU6050_MOTION_MOT_XPOS_BIT     6
#define MPU6050_MOTION_MOT_YNEG_BIT     5
#define MPU6050_MOTION_MOT_YPOS_BIT     4
#define MPU6050_MOTION_MOT_ZNEG_BIT     3
#define MPU6050_MOTION_MOT_ZPOS_BIT     2
#define MPU6050_MOTION_MOT_ZRMOT_BIT    0

#define MPU6050_DELAYCTRL_DELAY_ES_SHADOW_BIT   7
#define MPU6050_DELAYCTRL_I2C_SLV4_DLY_EN_BIT   4
#define MPU6050_DELAYCTRL_I2C_SLV3_DLY_EN_BIT   3
#define MPU6050_DELAYCTRL_I2C_SLV2_DLY_EN_BIT   2
#define MPU6050_DELAYCTRL_I2C_SLV1_DLY_EN_BIT   1
#define MPU6050_DELAYCTRL_I2C_SLV0_DLY_EN_BIT   0

#define MPU6050_PATHRESET_GYRO_RESET_BIT    2
#define MPU6050_PATHRESET_ACCEL_RESET_BIT   1
#define MPU6050_PATHRESET_TEMP_RESET_BIT    0

#define MPU6050_DETECT_ACCEL_ON_DELAY_BIT       5
#define MPU6050_DETECT_ACCEL_ON_DELAY_LENGTH    2
#define MPU6050_DETECT_FF_COUNT_BIT             3
#define MPU6050_DETECT_FF_COUNT_LENGTH          2
#define MPU6050_DETECT_MOT_COUNT_BIT            1
#define MPU6050_DETECT_MOT_COUNT_LENGTH         2

#define MPU6050_DETECT_DECREMENT_RESET  0x0
#define MPU6050_DETECT_DECREMENT_1      0x1
#define MPU6050_DETECT_DECREMENT_2      0x2
#define MPU6050_DETECT_DECREMENT_4      0x3

#define MPU6050_USERCTRL_DMP_EN_BIT             7
#define MPU6050_USERCTRL_FIFO_EN_BIT            6
#define MPU6050_USERCTRL_I2C_MST_EN_BIT         5
#define MPU6050_USERCTRL_I2C_IF_DIS_BIT         4
#define MPU6050_USERCTRL_DMP_RESET_BIT          3
#define MPU6050_USERCTRL_FIFO_RESET_BIT         2
#define MPU6050_USERCTRL_I2C_MST_RESET_BIT      1
#define MPU6050_USERCTRL_SIG_COND_RESET_BIT     0

#define MPU6050_PWR1_DEVICE_RESET_BIT   7
#define MPU6050_PWR1_SLEEP_BIT          6
#define MPU6050_PWR1_CYCLE_BIT          5
#define MPU6050_PWR1_TEMP_DIS_BIT       3
#define MPU6050_PWR1_CLKSEL_BIT         2
#define MPU6050_PWR1_CLKSEL_LENGTH      3

#define MPU6050_CLOCK_INTERNAL          0x00
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_PLL_XGYRO         0x01
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_PLL_YGYRO         0x02
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_PLL_ZGYRO         0x03
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_PLL_EXT32K        0x04
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_PLL_EXT19M        0x05
#define MPU6050_CLOCK_KEEP_RESET        0x07

#define MPU6050_PWR2_LP_WAKE_CTRL_BIT       7
#define MPU6050_PWR2_LP_WAKE_CTRL_LENGTH    2
#define MPU6050_PWR2_STBY_XA_BIT            5
#define MPU6050_PWR2_STBY_YA_BIT            4
#define MPU6050_PWR2_STBY_ZA_BIT            3
#define MPU6050_PWR2_STBY_XG_BIT            2
#define MPU6050_PWR2_STBY_YG_BIT            1
#define MPU6050_PWR2_STBY_ZG_BIT            0

#define MPU6050_WAKE_FREQ_1P25      0x0
#define MPU6050_WAKE_FREQ_2P5       0x1
#define MPU6050_WAKE_FREQ_5         0x2
#define MPU6050_WAKE_FREQ_10        0x3

#define MPU6050_BANKSEL_PRFTCH_EN_BIT       6
#define MPU6050_BANKSEL_CFG_USER_BANK_BIT   5
#define MPU6050_BANKSEL_MEM_SEL_BIT         4
#define MPU6050_BANKSEL_MEM_SEL_LENGTH      5

#define MPU6050_WHO_AM_I_BIT        6
#define MPU6050_WHO_AM_I_LENGTH     6

#define MPU6050_DMP_MEMORY_BANKS        8
#define MPU6050_DMP_MEMORY_BANK_SIZE    256
#define MPU6050_DMP_MEMORY_CHUNK_SIZE   16

// note: DMP code memory blocks defined at end of header file

class MPU6050 {
    public:
        MPU6050(uint8_t address=MPU6050_DEFAULT_ADDRESS);

        void initialize();
        bool testConnection();

        // AUX_VDDIO register
        uint8_t getAuxVDDIOLevel();
        void setAuxVDDIOLevel(uint8_t level);

        // SMPLRT_DIV register
        uint8_t getRate();
        void setRate(uint8_t rate);

        // CONFIG register
        uint8_t getExternalFrameSync();
        void setExternalFrameSync(uint8_t sync);
        uint8_t getDLPFMode();
        void setDLPFMode(uint8_t bandwidth);

        // GYRO_CONFIG register
        uint8_t getFullScaleGyroRange();
        void setFullScaleGyroRange(uint8_t range);

        // SELF_TEST registers
        uint8_t getAccelXSelfTestFactoryTrim();
        uint8_t getAccelYSelfTestFactoryTrim();
        uint8_t getAccelZSelfTestFactoryTrim();

        uint8_t getGyroXSelfTestFactoryTrim();
        uint8_t getGyroYSelfTestFactoryTrim();
        uint8_t getGyroZSelfTestFactoryTrim();

        // ACCEL_CONFIG register
        bool getAccelXSelfTest();
        void setAccelXSelfTest(bool enabled);
        bool getAccelYSelfTest();
        void setAccelYSelfTest(bool enabled);
        bool getAccelZSelfTest();
        void setAccelZSelfTest(bool enabled);
        uint8_t getFullScaleAccelRange();
        void setFullScaleAccelRange(uint8_t range);
        uint8_t getDHPFMode();
        void setDHPFMode(uint8_t mode);

        // FF_THR register
        uint8_t getFreefallDetectionThreshold();
        void setFreefallDetectionThreshold(uint8_t threshold);

        // FF_DUR register
        uint8_t getFreefallDetectionDuration();
        void setFreefallDetectionDuration(uint8_t duration);

        // MOT_THR register
        uint8_t getMotionDetectionThreshold();
        void setMotionDetectionThreshold(uint8_t threshold);

        // MOT_DUR register
        uint8_t getMotionDetectionDuration();
        void setMotionDetectionDuration(uint8_t duration);

        // ZRMOT_THR register
        uint8_t getZeroMotionDetectionThreshold();
        void setZeroMotionDetectionThreshold(uint8_t threshold);

        // ZRMOT_DUR register
        uint8_t getZeroMotionDetectionDuration();
        void setZeroMotionDetectionDuration(uint8_t duration);

        // FIFO_EN register
        bool getTempFIFOEnabled();
        void setTempFIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getXGyroFIFOEnabled();
        void setXGyroFIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getYGyroFIFOEnabled();
        void setYGyroFIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getZGyroFIFOEnabled();
        void setZGyroFIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getAccelFIFOEnabled();
        void setAccelFIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getSlave2FIFOEnabled();
        void setSlave2FIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getSlave1FIFOEnabled();
        void setSlave1FIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getSlave0FIFOEnabled();
        void setSlave0FIFOEnabled(bool enabled);

        // I2C_MST_CTRL register
        bool getMultiMasterEnabled();
        void setMultiMasterEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getWaitForExternalSensorEnabled();
        void setWaitForExternalSensorEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getSlave3FIFOEnabled();
        void setSlave3FIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getSlaveReadWriteTransitionEnabled();
        void setSlaveReadWriteTransitionEnabled(bool enabled);
        uint8_t getMasterClockSpeed();
        void setMasterClockSpeed(uint8_t speed);

        // I2C_SLV* registers (Slave 0-3)
        uint8_t getSlaveAddress(uint8_t num);
        void setSlaveAddress(uint8_t num, uint8_t address);
        uint8_t getSlaveRegister(uint8_t num);
        void setSlaveRegister(uint8_t num, uint8_t reg);
        bool getSlaveEnabled(uint8_t num);
        void setSlaveEnabled(uint8_t num, bool enabled);
        bool getSlaveWordByteSwap(uint8_t num);
        void setSlaveWordByteSwap(uint8_t num, bool enabled);
        bool getSlaveWriteMode(uint8_t num);
        void setSlaveWriteMode(uint8_t num, bool mode);
        bool getSlaveWordGroupOffset(uint8_t num);
        void setSlaveWordGroupOffset(uint8_t num, bool enabled);
        uint8_t getSlaveDataLength(uint8_t num);
        void setSlaveDataLength(uint8_t num, uint8_t length);

        // I2C_SLV* registers (Slave 4)
        uint8_t getSlave4Address();
        void setSlave4Address(uint8_t address);
        uint8_t getSlave4Register();
        void setSlave4Register(uint8_t reg);
        void setSlave4OutputByte(uint8_t data);
        bool getSlave4Enabled();
        void setSlave4Enabled(bool enabled);
        bool getSlave4InterruptEnabled();
        void setSlave4InterruptEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getSlave4WriteMode();
        void setSlave4WriteMode(bool mode);
        uint8_t getSlave4MasterDelay();
        void setSlave4MasterDelay(uint8_t delay);
        uint8_t getSlate4InputByte();

        // I2C_MST_STATUS register
        bool getPassthroughStatus();
        bool getSlave4IsDone();
        bool getLostArbitration();
        bool getSlave4Nack();
        bool getSlave3Nack();
        bool getSlave2Nack();
        bool getSlave1Nack();
        bool getSlave0Nack();

        // INT_PIN_CFG register
        bool getInterruptMode();
        void setInterruptMode(bool mode);
        bool getInterruptDrive();
        void setInterruptDrive(bool drive);
        bool getInterruptLatch();
        void setInterruptLatch(bool latch);
        bool getInterruptLatchClear();
        void setInterruptLatchClear(bool clear);
        bool getFSyncInterruptLevel();
        void setFSyncInterruptLevel(bool level);
        bool getFSyncInterruptEnabled();
        void setFSyncInterruptEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getI2CBypassEnabled();
        void setI2CBypassEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getClockOutputEnabled();
        void setClockOutputEnabled(bool enabled);

        // INT_ENABLE register
        uint8_t getIntEnabled();
        void setIntEnabled(uint8_t enabled);
        bool getIntFreefallEnabled();
        void setIntFreefallEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getIntMotionEnabled();
        void setIntMotionEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getIntZeroMotionEnabled();
        void setIntZeroMotionEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getIntFIFOBufferOverflowEnabled();
        void setIntFIFOBufferOverflowEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getIntI2CMasterEnabled();
        void setIntI2CMasterEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getIntDataReadyEnabled();
        void setIntDataReadyEnabled(bool enabled);

        // INT_STATUS register
        uint8_t getIntStatus();
        bool getIntFreefallStatus();
        bool getIntMotionStatus();
        bool getIntZeroMotionStatus();
        bool getIntFIFOBufferOverflowStatus();
        bool getIntI2CMasterStatus();
        bool getIntDataReadyStatus();

        // ACCEL_*OUT_* registers
        void getMotion9(int16_t* ax, int16_t* ay, int16_t* az, int16_t* gx, int16_t* gy, int16_t* gz, int16_t* mx, int16_t* my, int16_t* mz);
        void getMotion6(int16_t* ax, int16_t* ay, int16_t* az, int16_t* gx, int16_t* gy, int16_t* gz);
        void getAcceleration(int16_t* x, int16_t* y, int16_t* z);
        int16_t getAccelerationX();
        int16_t getAccelerationY();
        int16_t getAccelerationZ();

        // TEMP_OUT_* registers
        int16_t getTemperature();

        // GYRO_*OUT_* registers
        void getRotation(int16_t* x, int16_t* y, int16_t* z);
        int16_t getRotationX();
        int16_t getRotationY();
        int16_t getRotationZ();

        // EXT_SENS_DATA_* registers
        uint8_t getExternalSensorByte(int position);
        uint16_t getExternalSensorWord(int position);
        uint32_t getExternalSensorDWord(int position);

        // MOT_DETECT_STATUS register
        uint8_t getMotionStatus();
        bool getXNegMotionDetected();
        bool getXPosMotionDetected();
        bool getYNegMotionDetected();
        bool getYPosMotionDetected();
        bool getZNegMotionDetected();
        bool getZPosMotionDetected();
        bool getZeroMotionDetected();

        // I2C_SLV*_DO register
        void setSlaveOutputByte(uint8_t num, uint8_t data);

        // I2C_MST_DELAY_CTRL register
        bool getExternalShadowDelayEnabled();
        void setExternalShadowDelayEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getSlaveDelayEnabled(uint8_t num);
        void setSlaveDelayEnabled(uint8_t num, bool enabled);

        // SIGNAL_PATH_RESET register
        void resetGyroscopePath();
        void resetAccelerometerPath();
        void resetTemperaturePath();

        // MOT_DETECT_CTRL register
        uint8_t getAccelerometerPowerOnDelay();
        void setAccelerometerPowerOnDelay(uint8_t delay);
        uint8_t getFreefallDetectionCounterDecrement();
        void setFreefallDetectionCounterDecrement(uint8_t decrement);
        uint8_t getMotionDetectionCounterDecrement();
        void setMotionDetectionCounterDecrement(uint8_t decrement);

        // USER_CTRL register
        bool getFIFOEnabled();
        void setFIFOEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getI2CMasterModeEnabled();
        void setI2CMasterModeEnabled(bool enabled);
        void switchSPIEnabled(bool enabled);
        void resetFIFO();
        void resetI2CMaster();
        void resetSensors();

        // PWR_MGMT_1 register
        void reset();
        bool getSleepEnabled();
        void setSleepEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getWakeCycleEnabled();
        void setWakeCycleEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getTempSensorEnabled();
        void setTempSensorEnabled(bool enabled);
        uint8_t getClockSource();
        void setClockSource(uint8_t source);

        // PWR_MGMT_2 register
        uint8_t getWakeFrequency();
        void setWakeFrequency(uint8_t frequency);
        bool getStandbyXAccelEnabled();
        void setStandbyXAccelEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getStandbyYAccelEnabled();
        void setStandbyYAccelEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getStandbyZAccelEnabled();
        void setStandbyZAccelEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getStandbyXGyroEnabled();
        void setStandbyXGyroEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getStandbyYGyroEnabled();
        void setStandbyYGyroEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getStandbyZGyroEnabled();
        void setStandbyZGyroEnabled(bool enabled);

        // FIFO_COUNT_* registers
        uint16_t getFIFOCount();

        // FIFO_R_W register
        uint8_t getFIFOByte();
        void setFIFOByte(uint8_t data);
        void getFIFOBytes(uint8_t *data, uint8_t length);

        // WHO_AM_I register
        uint8_t getDeviceID();
        void setDeviceID(uint8_t id);
       
        // ======== UNDOCUMENTED/DMP REGISTERS/METHODS ========
       
        // XG_OFFS_TC register
        uint8_t getOTPBankValid();
        void setOTPBankValid(bool enabled);
        int8_t getXGyroOffsetTC();
        void setXGyroOffsetTC(int8_t offset);

        // YG_OFFS_TC register
        int8_t getYGyroOffsetTC();
        void setYGyroOffsetTC(int8_t offset);

        // ZG_OFFS_TC register
        int8_t getZGyroOffsetTC();
        void setZGyroOffsetTC(int8_t offset);

        // X_FINE_GAIN register
        int8_t getXFineGain();
        void setXFineGain(int8_t gain);

        // Y_FINE_GAIN register
        int8_t getYFineGain();
        void setYFineGain(int8_t gain);

        // Z_FINE_GAIN register
        int8_t getZFineGain();
        void setZFineGain(int8_t gain);

        // XA_OFFS_* registers
        int16_t getXAccelOffset();
        void setXAccelOffset(int16_t offset);

        // YA_OFFS_* register
        int16_t getYAccelOffset();
        void setYAccelOffset(int16_t offset);

        // ZA_OFFS_* register
        int16_t getZAccelOffset();
        void setZAccelOffset(int16_t offset);

        // XG_OFFS_USR* registers
        int16_t getXGyroOffset();
        void setXGyroOffset(int16_t offset);

        // YG_OFFS_USR* register
        int16_t getYGyroOffset();
        void setYGyroOffset(int16_t offset);

        // ZG_OFFS_USR* register
        int16_t getZGyroOffset();
        void setZGyroOffset(int16_t offset);
       
        // INT_ENABLE register (DMP functions)
        bool getIntPLLReadyEnabled();
        void setIntPLLReadyEnabled(bool enabled);
        bool getIntDMPEnabled();
        void setIntDMPEnabled(bool enabled);
       
        // DMP_INT_STATUS
        bool getDMPInt5Status();
        bool getDMPInt4Status();
        bool getDMPInt3Status();
        bool getDMPInt2Status();
        bool getDMPInt1Status();
        bool getDMPInt0Status();

        // INT_STATUS register (DMP functions)
        bool getIntPLLReadyStatus();
        bool getIntDMPStatus();
       
        // USER_CTRL register (DMP functions)
        bool getDMPEnabled();
        void setDMPEnabled(bool enabled);
        void resetDMP();
       
        // BANK_SEL register
        void setMemoryBank(uint8_t bank, bool prefetchEnabled=false, bool userBank=false);
       
        // MEM_START_ADDR register
        void setMemoryStartAddress(uint8_t address);
       
        // MEM_R_W register
        uint8_t readMemoryByte();
        void writeMemoryByte(uint8_t data);
        void readMemoryBlock(uint8_t *data, uint16_t dataSize, uint8_t bank=0, uint8_t address=0);
        bool writeMemoryBlock(const uint8_t *data, uint16_t dataSize, uint8_t bank=0, uint8_t address=0, bool verify=true, bool useProgMem=false);
        bool writeProgMemoryBlock(const uint8_t *data, uint16_t dataSize, uint8_t bank=0, uint8_t address=0, bool verify=true);

        bool writeDMPConfigurationSet(const uint8_t *data, uint16_t dataSize, bool useProgMem=false);
        bool writeProgDMPConfigurationSet(const uint8_t *data, uint16_t dataSize);

        // DMP_CFG_1 register
        uint8_t getDMPConfig1();
        void setDMPConfig1(uint8_t config);

        // DMP_CFG_2 register
        uint8_t getDMPConfig2();
        void setDMPConfig2(uint8_t config);

        // special methods for MotionApps 2.0 implementation
        #ifdef MPU6050_INCLUDE_DMP_MOTIONAPPS20

            uint8_t dmpInitialize();
            bool dmpPacketAvailable();

            uint8_t dmpSetFIFORate(uint8_t fifoRate);
            uint8_t dmpGetFIFORate();
            uint8_t dmpGetSampleStepSizeMS();
            uint8_t dmpGetSampleFrequency();
            int32_t dmpDecodeTemperature(int8_t tempReg);
           
            // Register callbacks after a packet of FIFO data is processed
            //uint8_t dmpRegisterFIFORateProcess(inv_obj_func func, int16_t priority);
            //uint8_t dmpUnregisterFIFORateProcess(inv_obj_func func);
            uint8_t dmpRunFIFORateProcesses();
           
            // Setup FIFO for various output
            uint8_t dmpSendQuaternion(uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendGyro(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendLinearAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendLinearAccelInWorld(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendControlData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendSensorData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendExternalSensorData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendGravity(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendPacketNumber(uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendQuantizedAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendEIS(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);

            // Get Fixed Point data from FIFO
            uint8_t dmpGetAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuaternion(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuaternion(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuaternion(Quaternion *q, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGet6AxisQuaternion(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGet6AxisQuaternion(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGet6AxisQuaternion(Quaternion *q, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetRelativeQuaternion(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetRelativeQuaternion(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetRelativeQuaternion(Quaternion *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyro(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyro(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyro(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpSetLinearAccelFilterCoefficient(float coef);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccel(VectorInt16 *v, VectorInt16 *vRaw, VectorFloat *gravity);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(VectorInt16 *v, VectorInt16 *vReal, Quaternion *q);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroAndAccelSensor(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroAndAccelSensor(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroAndAccelSensor(VectorInt16 *g, VectorInt16 *a, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroSensor(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroSensor(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroSensor(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetControlData(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetTemperature(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGravity(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGravity(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGravity(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGravity(VectorFloat *v, Quaternion *q);
            uint8_t dmpGetUnquantizedAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetUnquantizedAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetUnquantizedAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuantizedAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuantizedAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuantizedAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetExternalSensorData(int32_t *data, uint16_t size, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetEIS(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
           
            uint8_t dmpGetEuler(float *data, Quaternion *q);
            uint8_t dmpGetYawPitchRoll(float *data, Quaternion *q, VectorFloat *gravity);

            // Get Floating Point data from FIFO
            uint8_t dmpGetAccelFloat(float *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuaternionFloat(float *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);

            uint8_t dmpProcessFIFOPacket(const unsigned char *dmpData);
            uint8_t dmpReadAndProcessFIFOPacket(uint8_t numPackets, uint8_t *processed=NULL);

            uint8_t dmpSetFIFOProcessedCallback(void (*func) (void));

            uint8_t dmpInitFIFOParam();
            uint8_t dmpCloseFIFO();
            uint8_t dmpSetGyroDataSource(uint8_t source);
            uint8_t dmpDecodeQuantizedAccel();
            uint32_t dmpGetGyroSumOfSquare();
            uint32_t dmpGetAccelSumOfSquare();
            void dmpOverrideQuaternion(long *q);
            uint16_t dmpGetFIFOPacketSize();
        #endif

        // special methods for MotionApps 4.1 implementation
        #ifdef MPU6050_INCLUDE_DMP_MOTIONAPPS41

            uint8_t dmpInitialize();
            bool dmpPacketAvailable();

            uint8_t dmpSetFIFORate(uint8_t fifoRate);
            uint8_t dmpGetFIFORate();
            uint8_t dmpGetSampleStepSizeMS();
            uint8_t dmpGetSampleFrequency();
            int32_t dmpDecodeTemperature(int8_t tempReg);
           
            // Register callbacks after a packet of FIFO data is processed
            //uint8_t dmpRegisterFIFORateProcess(inv_obj_func func, int16_t priority);
            //uint8_t dmpUnregisterFIFORateProcess(inv_obj_func func);
            uint8_t dmpRunFIFORateProcesses();
           
            // Setup FIFO for various output
            uint8_t dmpSendQuaternion(uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendGyro(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendLinearAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendLinearAccelInWorld(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendControlData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendSensorData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendExternalSensorData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendGravity(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendPacketNumber(uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendQuantizedAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
            uint8_t dmpSendEIS(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);

            // Get Fixed Point data from FIFO
            uint8_t dmpGetAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuaternion(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuaternion(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuaternion(Quaternion *q, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGet6AxisQuaternion(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGet6AxisQuaternion(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGet6AxisQuaternion(Quaternion *q, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetRelativeQuaternion(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetRelativeQuaternion(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetRelativeQuaternion(Quaternion *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyro(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyro(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyro(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetMag(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpSetLinearAccelFilterCoefficient(float coef);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccel(VectorInt16 *v, VectorInt16 *vRaw, VectorFloat *gravity);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(VectorInt16 *v, VectorInt16 *vReal, Quaternion *q);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroAndAccelSensor(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroAndAccelSensor(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroAndAccelSensor(VectorInt16 *g, VectorInt16 *a, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroSensor(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroSensor(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGyroSensor(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetControlData(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetTemperature(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGravity(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGravity(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGravity(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetGravity(VectorFloat *v, Quaternion *q);
            uint8_t dmpGetUnquantizedAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetUnquantizedAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetUnquantizedAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuantizedAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuantizedAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuantizedAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetExternalSensorData(int32_t *data, uint16_t size, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetEIS(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
           
            uint8_t dmpGetEuler(float *data, Quaternion *q);
            uint8_t dmpGetYawPitchRoll(float *data, Quaternion *q, VectorFloat *gravity);

            // Get Floating Point data from FIFO
            uint8_t dmpGetAccelFloat(float *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);
            uint8_t dmpGetQuaternionFloat(float *data, const uint8_t* packet=0);

            uint8_t dmpProcessFIFOPacket(const unsigned char *dmpData);
            uint8_t dmpReadAndProcessFIFOPacket(uint8_t numPackets, uint8_t *processed=NULL);

            uint8_t dmpSetFIFOProcessedCallback(void (*func) (void));

            uint8_t dmpInitFIFOParam();
            uint8_t dmpCloseFIFO();
            uint8_t dmpSetGyroDataSource(uint8_t source);
            uint8_t dmpDecodeQuantizedAccel();
            uint32_t dmpGetGyroSumOfSquare();
            uint32_t dmpGetAccelSumOfSquare();
            void dmpOverrideQuaternion(long *q);
            uint16_t dmpGetFIFOPacketSize();
        #endif

    private:
        uint8_t devAddr;
        uint8_t buffer[14];
    #if defined(MPU6050_INCLUDE_DMP_MOTIONAPPS20) or defined(MPU6050_INCLUDE_DMP_MOTIONAPPS41)
        uint8_t *dmpPacketBuffer;
        uint16_t dmpPacketSize;
    #endif
};

#endif /* _MPU6050_H_ */
C-like:
// I2Cdev library collection - MPU6050 I2C device class, 6-axis MotionApps 2.0 implementation
// Based on InvenSense MPU-6050 register map document rev. 2.0, 5/19/2011 (RM-MPU-6000A-00)
// 5/20/2013 by Jeff Rowberg <jeff@rowberg.net>
// Updates should (hopefully) always be available at https://github.com/jrowberg/i2cdevlib
//
// Changelog:
//     ... - ongoing debug release

/* ============================================
I2Cdev device library code is placed under the MIT license
Copyright (c) 2012 Jeff Rowberg

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
THE SOFTWARE.
===============================================
*/

#ifndef _MPU6050_6AXIS_MOTIONAPPS20_H_
#define _MPU6050_6AXIS_MOTIONAPPS20_H_

#include "I2Cdev.h"
#include "helper_3dmath.h"

// MotionApps 2.0 DMP implementation, built using the MPU-6050EVB evaluation board
#define MPU6050_INCLUDE_DMP_MOTIONAPPS20

#include "MPU6050.h"

// Tom Carpenter's conditional PROGMEM code
// http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=129407.0
#ifdef __AVR__
    #include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#else
    // Teensy 3.0 library conditional PROGMEM code from Paul Stoffregen
    #ifndef __PGMSPACE_H_
        #define __PGMSPACE_H_ 1
        #include <inttypes.h>

        #define PROGMEM
        #define PGM_P  const char *
        #define PSTR(str) (str)
        #define F(x) x

        typedef void prog_void;
        typedef char prog_char;
        typedef unsigned char prog_uchar;
        typedef int8_t prog_int8_t;
        typedef uint8_t prog_uint8_t;
        typedef int16_t prog_int16_t;
        typedef uint16_t prog_uint16_t;
        typedef int32_t prog_int32_t;
        typedef uint32_t prog_uint32_t;
       
        #define strcpy_P(dest, src) strcpy((dest), (src))
        #define strcat_P(dest, src) strcat((dest), (src))
        #define strcmp_P(a, b) strcmp((a), (b))
       
        #define pgm_read_byte(addr) (*(const unsigned char *)(addr))
        #define pgm_read_word(addr) (*(const unsigned short *)(addr))
        #define pgm_read_dword(addr) (*(const unsigned long *)(addr))
        #define pgm_read_float(addr) (*(const float *)(addr))
       
        #define pgm_read_byte_near(addr) pgm_read_byte(addr)
        #define pgm_read_word_near(addr) pgm_read_word(addr)
        #define pgm_read_dword_near(addr) pgm_read_dword(addr)
        #define pgm_read_float_near(addr) pgm_read_float(addr)
        #define pgm_read_byte_far(addr) pgm_read_byte(addr)
        #define pgm_read_word_far(addr) pgm_read_word(addr)
        #define pgm_read_dword_far(addr) pgm_read_dword(addr)
        #define pgm_read_float_far(addr) pgm_read_float(addr)
    #endif
#endif

/* Source is from the InvenSense MotionApps v2 demo code. Original source is
* unavailable, unless you happen to be amazing as decompiling binary by
* hand (in which case, please contact me, and I'm totally serious).
*
* Also, I'd like to offer many, many thanks to Noah Zerkin for all of the
* DMP reverse-engineering he did to help make this bit of wizardry
* possible.
*/

// NOTE! Enabling DEBUG adds about 3.3kB to the flash program size.
// Debug output is now working even on ATMega328P MCUs (e.g. Arduino Uno)
// after moving string constants to flash memory storage using the F()
// compiler macro (Arduino IDE 1.0+ required).

//#define DEBUG
#ifdef DEBUG
    #define DEBUG_PRINT(x) Serial.print(x)
    #define DEBUG_PRINTF(x, y) Serial.print(x, y)
    #define DEBUG_PRINTLN(x) Serial.println(x)
    #define DEBUG_PRINTLNF(x, y) Serial.println(x, y)
#else
    #define DEBUG_PRINT(x)
    #define DEBUG_PRINTF(x, y)
    #define DEBUG_PRINTLN(x)
    #define DEBUG_PRINTLNF(x, y)
#endif

#define MPU6050_DMP_CODE_SIZE       1929    // dmpMemory[]
#define MPU6050_DMP_CONFIG_SIZE     192     // dmpConfig[]
#define MPU6050_DMP_UPDATES_SIZE    47      // dmpUpdates[]

/* ================================================================================================ *
| Default MotionApps v2.0 42-byte FIFO packet structure:                                           |
|                                                                                                  |
| [QUAT W][      ][QUAT X][      ][QUAT Y][      ][QUAT Z][      ][GYRO X][      ][GYRO Y][      ] |
|   0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  |
|                                                                                                  |
| [GYRO Z][      ][ACC X ][      ][ACC Y ][      ][ACC Z ][      ][      ]                         |
|  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  36  37  38  39  40  41                          |
* ================================================================================================ */

// this block of memory gets written to the MPU on start-up, and it seems
// to be volatile memory, so it has to be done each time (it only takes ~1
// second though)
const unsigned char dmpMemory[MPU6050_DMP_CODE_SIZE] PROGMEM = {
    // bank 0, 256 bytes
    0xFB, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3E, 0x00, 0x0B, 0x00, 0x36, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x03, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x65, 0x00, 0x54, 0xFF, 0xEF, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFA, 0x80, 0x00, 0x0B, 0x12, 0x82, 0x00, 0x01,
    0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x28, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x45, 0x81, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFA, 0x72, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xE8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x01, 0x7F, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFE, 0x80, 0x01,
    0x00, 0x1B, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x3E, 0x03, 0x30, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0xCA, 0xE3, 0x09, 0x3E, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x20, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x60, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x41, 0xFF, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0B, 0x2A, 0x00, 0x00, 0x16, 0x55, 0x00, 0x00, 0x21, 0x82,
    0xFD, 0x87, 0x26, 0x50, 0xFD, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1F, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x05, 0x80, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x6F, 0x00, 0x02, 0x65, 0x32, 0x00, 0x00, 0x5E, 0xC0,
    0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0xFB, 0x8C, 0x6F, 0x5D, 0xFD, 0x5D, 0x08, 0xD9, 0x00, 0x7C, 0x73, 0x3B, 0x00, 0x6C, 0x12, 0xCC,
    0x32, 0x00, 0x13, 0x9D, 0x32, 0x00, 0xD0, 0xD6, 0x32, 0x00, 0x08, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x01, 0xF4,
    0xFF, 0xE6, 0x80, 0x79, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xD0, 0xD6, 0x00, 0x00, 0x27, 0x10,

    // bank 1, 256 bytes
    0xFB, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0xFA, 0x36, 0xFF, 0xBC, 0x30, 0x8E, 0x00, 0x05, 0xFB, 0xF0, 0xFF, 0xD9, 0x5B, 0xC8,
    0xFF, 0xD0, 0x9A, 0xBE, 0x00, 0x00, 0x10, 0xA9, 0xFF, 0xF4, 0x1E, 0xB2, 0x00, 0xCE, 0xBB, 0xF7,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x04, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x02, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0C,
    0xFF, 0xC2, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0xCF, 0x80, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x06, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x14,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0x3F, 0x68, 0xB6, 0x79, 0x35, 0x28, 0xBC, 0xC6, 0x7E, 0xD1, 0x6C,
    0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xB2, 0x6A, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3F, 0xF0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x30,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x25, 0x4D, 0x00, 0x2F, 0x70, 0x6D, 0x00, 0x00, 0x05, 0xAE, 0x00, 0x0C, 0x02, 0xD0,

    // bank 2, 256 bytes
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x65, 0x00, 0x54, 0xFF, 0xEF, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x44, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0C, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x65, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x54, 0x00, 0x00, 0xFF, 0xEF, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x02, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x1B, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x1B, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,

    // bank 3, 256 bytes
    0xD8, 0xDC, 0xBA, 0xA2, 0xF1, 0xDE, 0xB2, 0xB8, 0xB4, 0xA8, 0x81, 0x91, 0xF7, 0x4A, 0x90, 0x7F,
    0x91, 0x6A, 0xF3, 0xF9, 0xDB, 0xA8, 0xF9, 0xB0, 0xBA, 0xA0, 0x80, 0xF2, 0xCE, 0x81, 0xF3, 0xC2,
    0xF1, 0xC1, 0xF2, 0xC3, 0xF3, 0xCC, 0xA2, 0xB2, 0x80, 0xF1, 0xC6, 0xD8, 0x80, 0xBA, 0xA7, 0xDF,
    0xDF, 0xDF, 0xF2, 0xA7, 0xC3, 0xCB, 0xC5, 0xB6, 0xF0, 0x87, 0xA2, 0x94, 0x24, 0x48, 0x70, 0x3C,
    0x95, 0x40, 0x68, 0x34, 0x58, 0x9B, 0x78, 0xA2, 0xF1, 0x83, 0x92, 0x2D, 0x55, 0x7D, 0xD8, 0xB1,
    0xB4, 0xB8, 0xA1, 0xD0, 0x91, 0x80, 0xF2, 0x70, 0xF3, 0x70, 0xF2, 0x7C, 0x80, 0xA8, 0xF1, 0x01,
    0xB0, 0x98, 0x87, 0xD9, 0x43, 0xD8, 0x86, 0xC9, 0x88, 0xBA, 0xA1, 0xF2, 0x0E, 0xB8, 0x97, 0x80,
    0xF1, 0xA9, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xAA, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xF2, 0xAA, 0xC5, 0xCD, 0xC7, 0xA9, 0x0C,
    0xC9, 0x2C, 0x97, 0x97, 0x97, 0x97, 0xF1, 0xA9, 0x89, 0x26, 0x46, 0x66, 0xB0, 0xB4, 0xBA, 0x80,
    0xAC, 0xDE, 0xF2, 0xCA, 0xF1, 0xB2, 0x8C, 0x02, 0xA9, 0xB6, 0x98, 0x00, 0x89, 0x0E, 0x16, 0x1E,
    0xB8, 0xA9, 0xB4, 0x99, 0x2C, 0x54, 0x7C, 0xB0, 0x8A, 0xA8, 0x96, 0x36, 0x56, 0x76, 0xF1, 0xB9,
    0xAF, 0xB4, 0xB0, 0x83, 0xC0, 0xB8, 0xA8, 0x97, 0x11, 0xB1, 0x8F, 0x98, 0xB9, 0xAF, 0xF0, 0x24,
    0x08, 0x44, 0x10, 0x64, 0x18, 0xF1, 0xA3, 0x29, 0x55, 0x7D, 0xAF, 0x83, 0xB5, 0x93, 0xAF, 0xF0,
    0x00, 0x28, 0x50, 0xF1, 0xA3, 0x86, 0x9F, 0x61, 0xA6, 0xDA, 0xDE, 0xDF, 0xD9, 0xFA, 0xA3, 0x86,
    0x96, 0xDB, 0x31, 0xA6, 0xD9, 0xF8, 0xDF, 0xBA, 0xA6, 0x8F, 0xC2, 0xC5, 0xC7, 0xB2, 0x8C, 0xC1,
    0xB8, 0xA2, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xA3, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xD8, 0xD8, 0xF1, 0xB8, 0xA8, 0xB2, 0x86,

    // bank 4, 256 bytes
    0xB4, 0x98, 0x0D, 0x35, 0x5D, 0xB8, 0xAA, 0x98, 0xB0, 0x87, 0x2D, 0x35, 0x3D, 0xB2, 0xB6, 0xBA,
    0xAF, 0x8C, 0x96, 0x19, 0x8F, 0x9F, 0xA7, 0x0E, 0x16, 0x1E, 0xB4, 0x9A, 0xB8, 0xAA, 0x87, 0x2C,
    0x54, 0x7C, 0xB9, 0xA3, 0xDE, 0xDF, 0xDF, 0xA3, 0xB1, 0x80, 0xF2, 0xC4, 0xCD, 0xC9, 0xF1, 0xB8,
    0xA9, 0xB4, 0x99, 0x83, 0x0D, 0x35, 0x5D, 0x89, 0xB9, 0xA3, 0x2D, 0x55, 0x7D, 0xB5, 0x93, 0xA3,
    0x0E, 0x16, 0x1E, 0xA9, 0x2C, 0x54, 0x7C, 0xB8, 0xB4, 0xB0, 0xF1, 0x97, 0x83, 0xA8, 0x11, 0x84,
    0xA5, 0x09, 0x98, 0xA3, 0x83, 0xF0, 0xDA, 0x24, 0x08, 0x44, 0x10, 0x64, 0x18, 0xD8, 0xF1, 0xA5,
    0x29, 0x55, 0x7D, 0xA5, 0x85, 0x95, 0x02, 0x1A, 0x2E, 0x3A, 0x56, 0x5A, 0x40, 0x48, 0xF9, 0xF3,
    0xA3, 0xD9, 0xF8, 0xF0, 0x98, 0x83, 0x24, 0x08, 0x44, 0x10, 0x64, 0x18, 0x97, 0x82, 0xA8, 0xF1,
    0x11, 0xF0, 0x98, 0xA2, 0x24, 0x08, 0x44, 0x10, 0x64, 0x18, 0xDA, 0xF3, 0xDE, 0xD8, 0x83, 0xA5,
    0x94, 0x01, 0xD9, 0xA3, 0x02, 0xF1, 0xA2, 0xC3, 0xC5, 0xC7, 0xD8, 0xF1, 0x84, 0x92, 0xA2, 0x4D,
    0xDA, 0x2A, 0xD8, 0x48, 0x69, 0xD9, 0x2A, 0xD8, 0x68, 0x55, 0xDA, 0x32, 0xD8, 0x50, 0x71, 0xD9,
    0x32, 0xD8, 0x70, 0x5D, 0xDA, 0x3A, 0xD8, 0x58, 0x79, 0xD9, 0x3A, 0xD8, 0x78, 0x93, 0xA3, 0x4D,
    0xDA, 0x2A, 0xD8, 0x48, 0x69, 0xD9, 0x2A, 0xD8, 0x68, 0x55, 0xDA, 0x32, 0xD8, 0x50, 0x71, 0xD9,
    0x32, 0xD8, 0x70, 0x5D, 0xDA, 0x3A, 0xD8, 0x58, 0x79, 0xD9, 0x3A, 0xD8, 0x78, 0xA8, 0x8A, 0x9A,
    0xF0, 0x28, 0x50, 0x78, 0x9E, 0xF3, 0x88, 0x18, 0xF1, 0x9F, 0x1D, 0x98, 0xA8, 0xD9, 0x08, 0xD8,
    0xC8, 0x9F, 0x12, 0x9E, 0xF3, 0x15, 0xA8, 0xDA, 0x12, 0x10, 0xD8, 0xF1, 0xAF, 0xC8, 0x97, 0x87,

    // bank 5, 256 bytes
    0x34, 0xB5, 0xB9, 0x94, 0xA4, 0x21, 0xF3, 0xD9, 0x22, 0xD8, 0xF2, 0x2D, 0xF3, 0xD9, 0x2A, 0xD8,
    0xF2, 0x35, 0xF3, 0xD9, 0x32, 0xD8, 0x81, 0xA4, 0x60, 0x60, 0x61, 0xD9, 0x61, 0xD8, 0x6C, 0x68,
    0x69, 0xD9, 0x69, 0xD8, 0x74, 0x70, 0x71, 0xD9, 0x71, 0xD8, 0xB1, 0xA3, 0x84, 0x19, 0x3D, 0x5D,
    0xA3, 0x83, 0x1A, 0x3E, 0x5E, 0x93, 0x10, 0x30, 0x81, 0x10, 0x11, 0xB8, 0xB0, 0xAF, 0x8F, 0x94,
    0xF2, 0xDA, 0x3E, 0xD8, 0xB4, 0x9A, 0xA8, 0x87, 0x29, 0xDA, 0xF8, 0xD8, 0x87, 0x9A, 0x35, 0xDA,
    0xF8, 0xD8, 0x87, 0x9A, 0x3D, 0xDA, 0xF8, 0xD8, 0xB1, 0xB9, 0xA4, 0x98, 0x85, 0x02, 0x2E, 0x56,
    0xA5, 0x81, 0x00, 0x0C, 0x14, 0xA3, 0x97, 0xB0, 0x8A, 0xF1, 0x2D, 0xD9, 0x28, 0xD8, 0x4D, 0xD9,
    0x48, 0xD8, 0x6D, 0xD9, 0x68, 0xD8, 0xB1, 0x84, 0x0D, 0xDA, 0x0E, 0xD8, 0xA3, 0x29, 0x83, 0xDA,
    0x2C, 0x0E, 0xD8, 0xA3, 0x84, 0x49, 0x83, 0xDA, 0x2C, 0x4C, 0x0E, 0xD8, 0xB8, 0xB0, 0xA8, 0x8A,
    0x9A, 0xF5, 0x20, 0xAA, 0xDA, 0xDF, 0xD8, 0xA8, 0x40, 0xAA, 0xD0, 0xDA, 0xDE, 0xD8, 0xA8, 0x60,
    0xAA, 0xDA, 0xD0, 0xDF, 0xD8, 0xF1, 0x97, 0x86, 0xA8, 0x31, 0x9B, 0x06, 0x99, 0x07, 0xAB, 0x97,
    0x28, 0x88, 0x9B, 0xF0, 0x0C, 0x20, 0x14, 0x40, 0xB8, 0xB0, 0xB4, 0xA8, 0x8C, 0x9C, 0xF0, 0x04,
    0x28, 0x51, 0x79, 0x1D, 0x30, 0x14, 0x38, 0xB2, 0x82, 0xAB, 0xD0, 0x98, 0x2C, 0x50, 0x50, 0x78,
    0x78, 0x9B, 0xF1, 0x1A, 0xB0, 0xF0, 0x8A, 0x9C, 0xA8, 0x29, 0x51, 0x79, 0x8B, 0x29, 0x51, 0x79,
    0x8A, 0x24, 0x70, 0x59, 0x8B, 0x20, 0x58, 0x71, 0x8A, 0x44, 0x69, 0x38, 0x8B, 0x39, 0x40, 0x68,
    0x8A, 0x64, 0x48, 0x31, 0x8B, 0x30, 0x49, 0x60, 0xA5, 0x88, 0x20, 0x09, 0x71, 0x58, 0x44, 0x68,

    // bank 6, 256 bytes
    0x11, 0x39, 0x64, 0x49, 0x30, 0x19, 0xF1, 0xAC, 0x00, 0x2C, 0x54, 0x7C, 0xF0, 0x8C, 0xA8, 0x04,
    0x28, 0x50, 0x78, 0xF1, 0x88, 0x97, 0x26, 0xA8, 0x59, 0x98, 0xAC, 0x8C, 0x02, 0x26, 0x46, 0x66,
    0xF0, 0x89, 0x9C, 0xA8, 0x29, 0x51, 0x79, 0x24, 0x70, 0x59, 0x44, 0x69, 0x38, 0x64, 0x48, 0x31,
    0xA9, 0x88, 0x09, 0x20, 0x59, 0x70, 0xAB, 0x11, 0x38, 0x40, 0x69, 0xA8, 0x19, 0x31, 0x48, 0x60,
    0x8C, 0xA8, 0x3C, 0x41, 0x5C, 0x20, 0x7C, 0x00, 0xF1, 0x87, 0x98, 0x19, 0x86, 0xA8, 0x6E, 0x76,
    0x7E, 0xA9, 0x99, 0x88, 0x2D, 0x55, 0x7D, 0x9E, 0xB9, 0xA3, 0x8A, 0x22, 0x8A, 0x6E, 0x8A, 0x56,
    0x8A, 0x5E, 0x9F, 0xB1, 0x83, 0x06, 0x26, 0x46, 0x66, 0x0E, 0x2E, 0x4E, 0x6E, 0x9D, 0xB8, 0xAD,
    0x00, 0x2C, 0x54, 0x7C, 0xF2, 0xB1, 0x8C, 0xB4, 0x99, 0xB9, 0xA3, 0x2D, 0x55, 0x7D, 0x81, 0x91,
    0xAC, 0x38, 0xAD, 0x3A, 0xB5, 0x83, 0x91, 0xAC, 0x2D, 0xD9, 0x28, 0xD8, 0x4D, 0xD9, 0x48, 0xD8,
    0x6D, 0xD9, 0x68, 0xD8, 0x8C, 0x9D, 0xAE, 0x29, 0xD9, 0x04, 0xAE, 0xD8, 0x51, 0xD9, 0x04, 0xAE,
    0xD8, 0x79, 0xD9, 0x04, 0xD8, 0x81, 0xF3, 0x9D, 0xAD, 0x00, 0x8D, 0xAE, 0x19, 0x81, 0xAD, 0xD9,
    0x01, 0xD8, 0xF2, 0xAE, 0xDA, 0x26, 0xD8, 0x8E, 0x91, 0x29, 0x83, 0xA7, 0xD9, 0xAD, 0xAD, 0xAD,
    0xAD, 0xF3, 0x2A, 0xD8, 0xD8, 0xF1, 0xB0, 0xAC, 0x89, 0x91, 0x3E, 0x5E, 0x76, 0xF3, 0xAC, 0x2E,
    0x2E, 0xF1, 0xB1, 0x8C, 0x5A, 0x9C, 0xAC, 0x2C, 0x28, 0x28, 0x28, 0x9C, 0xAC, 0x30, 0x18, 0xA8,
    0x98, 0x81, 0x28, 0x34, 0x3C, 0x97, 0x24, 0xA7, 0x28, 0x34, 0x3C, 0x9C, 0x24, 0xF2, 0xB0, 0x89,
    0xAC, 0x91, 0x2C, 0x4C, 0x6C, 0x8A, 0x9B, 0x2D, 0xD9, 0xD8, 0xD8, 0x51, 0xD9, 0xD8, 0xD8, 0x79,

    // bank 7, 138 bytes (remainder)
    0xD9, 0xD8, 0xD8, 0xF1, 0x9E, 0x88, 0xA3, 0x31, 0xDA, 0xD8, 0xD8, 0x91, 0x2D, 0xD9, 0x28, 0xD8,
    0x4D, 0xD9, 0x48, 0xD8, 0x6D, 0xD9, 0x68, 0xD8, 0xB1, 0x83, 0x93, 0x35, 0x3D, 0x80, 0x25, 0xDA,
    0xD8, 0xD8, 0x85, 0x69, 0xDA, 0xD8, 0xD8, 0xB4, 0x93, 0x81, 0xA3, 0x28, 0x34, 0x3C, 0xF3, 0xAB,
    0x8B, 0xF8, 0xA3, 0x91, 0xB6, 0x09, 0xB4, 0xD9, 0xAB, 0xDE, 0xFA, 0xB0, 0x87, 0x9C, 0xB9, 0xA3,
    0xDD, 0xF1, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0x95, 0xF1, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0x9D, 0xF1, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3,
    0xA3, 0xF2, 0xA3, 0xB4, 0x90, 0x80, 0xF2, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3,
    0xA3, 0xB2, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xB0, 0x87, 0xB5, 0x99, 0xF1, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3,
    0x98, 0xF1, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0x97, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xF3, 0x9B, 0xA3, 0xA3, 0xDC,
    0xB9, 0xA7, 0xF1, 0x26, 0x26, 0x26, 0xD8, 0xD8, 0xFF
};

#ifndef MPU6050_DMP_FIFO_RATE_DIVISOR
#define MPU6050_DMP_FIFO_RATE_DIVISOR 0x01
#endif

// thanks to Noah Zerkin for piecing this stuff together!
const unsigned char dmpConfig[MPU6050_DMP_CONFIG_SIZE] PROGMEM = {
//  BANK    OFFSET  LENGTH  [DATA]
    0x03,   0x7B,   0x03,   0x4C, 0xCD, 0x6C,         // FCFG_1 inv_set_gyro_calibration
    0x03,   0xAB,   0x03,   0x36, 0x56, 0x76,         // FCFG_3 inv_set_gyro_calibration
    0x00,   0x68,   0x04,   0x02, 0xCB, 0x47, 0xA2,   // D_0_104 inv_set_gyro_calibration
    0x02,   0x18,   0x04,   0x00, 0x05, 0x8B, 0xC1,   // D_0_24 inv_set_gyro_calibration
    0x01,   0x0C,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // D_1_152 inv_set_accel_calibration
    0x03,   0x7F,   0x06,   0x0C, 0xC9, 0x2C, 0x97, 0x97, 0x97, // FCFG_2 inv_set_accel_calibration
    0x03,   0x89,   0x03,   0x26, 0x46, 0x66,         // FCFG_7 inv_set_accel_calibration
    0x00,   0x6C,   0x02,   0x20, 0x00,               // D_0_108 inv_set_accel_calibration
    0x02,   0x40,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_00 inv_set_compass_calibration
    0x02,   0x44,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_01
    0x02,   0x48,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_02
    0x02,   0x4C,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_10
    0x02,   0x50,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_11
    0x02,   0x54,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_12
    0x02,   0x58,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_20
    0x02,   0x5C,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_21
    0x02,   0xBC,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,   // CPASS_MTX_22
    0x01,   0xEC,   0x04,   0x00, 0x00, 0x40, 0x00,   // D_1_236 inv_apply_endian_accel
    0x03,   0x7F,   0x06,   0x0C, 0xC9, 0x2C, 0x97, 0x97, 0x97, // FCFG_2 inv_set_mpu_sensors
    0x04,   0x02,   0x03,   0x0D, 0x35, 0x5D,         // CFG_MOTION_BIAS inv_turn_on_bias_from_no_motion
    0x04,   0x09,   0x04,   0x87, 0x2D, 0x35, 0x3D,   // FCFG_5 inv_set_bias_update
    0x00,   0xA3,   0x01,   0x00,                     // D_0_163 inv_set_dead_zone
                 // SPECIAL 0x01 = enable interrupts
    0x00,   0x00,   0x00,   0x01, // SET INT_ENABLE at i=22, SPECIAL INSTRUCTION
    0x07,   0x86,   0x01,   0xFE,                     // CFG_6 inv_set_fifo_interupt
    0x07,   0x41,   0x05,   0xF1, 0x20, 0x28, 0x30, 0x38, // CFG_8 inv_send_quaternion
    0x07,   0x7E,   0x01,   0x30,                     // CFG_16 inv_set_footer
    0x07,   0x46,   0x01,   0x9A,                     // CFG_GYRO_SOURCE inv_send_gyro
    0x07,   0x47,   0x04,   0xF1, 0x28, 0x30, 0x38,   // CFG_9 inv_send_gyro -> inv_construct3_fifo
    0x07,   0x6C,   0x04,   0xF1, 0x28, 0x30, 0x38,   // CFG_12 inv_send_accel -> inv_construct3_fifo
    0x02,   0x16,   0x02,   0x00, MPU6050_DMP_FIFO_RATE_DIVISOR // D_0_22 inv_set_fifo_rate

    // This very last 0x01 WAS a 0x09, which drops the FIFO rate down to 20 Hz. 0x07 is 25 Hz,
    // 0x01 is 100Hz. Going faster than 100Hz (0x00=200Hz) tends to result in very noisy data.
    // DMP output frequency is calculated easily using this equation: (200Hz / (1 + value))

    // It is important to make sure the host processor can keep up with reading and processing
    // the FIFO output at the desired rate. Handling FIFO overflow cleanly is also a good idea.
};

const unsigned char dmpUpdates[MPU6050_DMP_UPDATES_SIZE] PROGMEM = {
    0x01,   0xB2,   0x02,   0xFF, 0xFF,
    0x01,   0x90,   0x04,   0x09, 0x23, 0xA1, 0x35,
    0x01,   0x6A,   0x02,   0x06, 0x00,
    0x01,   0x60,   0x08,   0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x00,   0x60,   0x04,   0x40, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
    0x01,   0x62,   0x02,   0x00, 0x00,
    0x00,   0x60,   0x04,   0x00, 0x40, 0x00, 0x00
};

uint8_t MPU6050::dmpInitialize() {
    // reset device
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("\n\nResetting MPU6050..."));
    reset();
    delay(30); // wait after reset

    // enable sleep mode and wake cycle
    /*Serial.println(F("Enabling sleep mode..."));
    setSleepEnabled(true);
    Serial.println(F("Enabling wake cycle..."));
    setWakeCycleEnabled(true);*/

    // disable sleep mode
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Disabling sleep mode..."));
    setSleepEnabled(false);

    // get MPU hardware revision
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Selecting user bank 16..."));
    setMemoryBank(0x10, true, true);
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Selecting memory byte 6..."));
    setMemoryStartAddress(0x06);
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Checking hardware revision..."));
    DEBUG_PRINT(F("Revision @ user[16][6] = "));
    DEBUG_PRINTLNF(readMemoryByte(), HEX);
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Resetting memory bank selection to 0..."));
    setMemoryBank(0, false, false);

    // check OTP bank valid
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Reading OTP bank valid flag..."));
    DEBUG_PRINT(F("OTP bank is "));
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(getOTPBankValid() ? F("valid!") : F("invalid!"));

    // get X/Y/Z gyro offsets
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Reading gyro offset TC values..."));
    int8_t xgOffsetTC = getXGyroOffsetTC();
    int8_t ygOffsetTC = getYGyroOffsetTC();
    int8_t zgOffsetTC = getZGyroOffsetTC();
    DEBUG_PRINT(F("X gyro offset = "));
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(xgOffsetTC);
    DEBUG_PRINT(F("Y gyro offset = "));
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(ygOffsetTC);
    DEBUG_PRINT(F("Z gyro offset = "));
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(zgOffsetTC);

    // setup weird slave stuff (?)
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting slave 0 address to 0x7F..."));
    setSlaveAddress(0, 0x7F);
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Disabling I2C Master mode..."));
    setI2CMasterModeEnabled(false);
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting slave 0 address to 0x68 (self)..."));
    setSlaveAddress(0, 0x68);
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Resetting I2C Master control..."));
    resetI2CMaster();
    delay(20);

    // load DMP code into memory banks
    DEBUG_PRINT(F("Writing DMP code to MPU memory banks ("));
    DEBUG_PRINT(MPU6050_DMP_CODE_SIZE);
    DEBUG_PRINTLN(F(" bytes)"));
    if (writeProgMemoryBlock(dmpMemory, MPU6050_DMP_CODE_SIZE)) {
        DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Success! DMP code written and verified."));

        // write DMP configuration
        DEBUG_PRINT(F("Writing DMP configuration to MPU memory banks ("));
        DEBUG_PRINT(MPU6050_DMP_CONFIG_SIZE);
        DEBUG_PRINTLN(F(" bytes in config def)"));
        if (writeProgDMPConfigurationSet(dmpConfig, MPU6050_DMP_CONFIG_SIZE)) {
            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Success! DMP configuration written and verified."));

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting clock source to Z Gyro..."));
            setClockSource(MPU6050_CLOCK_PLL_ZGYRO);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting DMP and FIFO_OFLOW interrupts enabled..."));
            setIntEnabled(1<<MPU6050_INTERRUPT_FIFO_OFLOW_BIT|1<<MPU6050_INTERRUPT_DMP_INT_BIT);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting sample rate to 200Hz..."));
            setRate(4); // 1khz / (1 + 4) = 200 Hz

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting external frame sync to TEMP_OUT_L[0]..."));
            setExternalFrameSync(MPU6050_EXT_SYNC_TEMP_OUT_L);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting DLPF bandwidth to 42Hz..."));
            setDLPFMode(MPU6050_DLPF_BW_42);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting gyro sensitivity to +/- 2000 deg/sec..."));
            setFullScaleGyroRange(MPU6050_GYRO_FS_2000);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting DMP programm start address"));
            //write start address MSB into register
            setDMPConfig1(0x03);
            //write start address LSB into register
            setDMPConfig2(0x00);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Clearing OTP Bank flag..."));
            setOTPBankValid(false);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting X/Y/Z gyro offset TCs to previous values..."));
            setXGyroOffsetTC(xgOffsetTC);
            setYGyroOffsetTC(ygOffsetTC);
            setZGyroOffsetTC(zgOffsetTC);

            //DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting X/Y/Z gyro user offsets to zero..."));
            //setXGyroOffset(0);
            //setYGyroOffset(0);
            //setZGyroOffset(0);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Writing final memory update 1/7 (function unknown)..."));
            uint8_t dmpUpdate[16], j;
            uint16_t pos = 0;
            for (j = 0; j < 4 || j < dmpUpdate[2] + 3; j++, pos++) dmpUpdate[j] = pgm_read_byte(&dmpUpdates[pos]);
            writeMemoryBlock(dmpUpdate + 3, dmpUpdate[2], dmpUpdate[0], dmpUpdate[1]);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Writing final memory update 2/7 (function unknown)..."));
            for (j = 0; j < 4 || j < dmpUpdate[2] + 3; j++, pos++) dmpUpdate[j] = pgm_read_byte(&dmpUpdates[pos]);
            writeMemoryBlock(dmpUpdate + 3, dmpUpdate[2], dmpUpdate[0], dmpUpdate[1]);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Resetting FIFO..."));
            resetFIFO();

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Reading FIFO count..."));
            uint16_t fifoCount = getFIFOCount();
            uint8_t fifoBuffer[128];

            DEBUG_PRINT(F("Current FIFO count="));
            DEBUG_PRINTLN(fifoCount);
            getFIFOBytes(fifoBuffer, fifoCount);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting motion detection threshold to 2..."));
            setMotionDetectionThreshold(2);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting zero-motion detection threshold to 156..."));
            setZeroMotionDetectionThreshold(156);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting motion detection duration to 80..."));
            setMotionDetectionDuration(80);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting zero-motion detection duration to 0..."));
            setZeroMotionDetectionDuration(0);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Resetting FIFO..."));
            resetFIFO();

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Enabling FIFO..."));
            setFIFOEnabled(true);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Enabling DMP..."));
            setDMPEnabled(true);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Resetting DMP..."));
            resetDMP();

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Writing final memory update 3/7 (function unknown)..."));
            for (j = 0; j < 4 || j < dmpUpdate[2] + 3; j++, pos++) dmpUpdate[j] = pgm_read_byte(&dmpUpdates[pos]);
            writeMemoryBlock(dmpUpdate + 3, dmpUpdate[2], dmpUpdate[0], dmpUpdate[1]);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Writing final memory update 4/7 (function unknown)..."));
            for (j = 0; j < 4 || j < dmpUpdate[2] + 3; j++, pos++) dmpUpdate[j] = pgm_read_byte(&dmpUpdates[pos]);
            writeMemoryBlock(dmpUpdate + 3, dmpUpdate[2], dmpUpdate[0], dmpUpdate[1]);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Writing final memory update 5/7 (function unknown)..."));
            for (j = 0; j < 4 || j < dmpUpdate[2] + 3; j++, pos++) dmpUpdate[j] = pgm_read_byte(&dmpUpdates[pos]);
            writeMemoryBlock(dmpUpdate + 3, dmpUpdate[2], dmpUpdate[0], dmpUpdate[1]);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Waiting for FIFO count > 2..."));
            while ((fifoCount = getFIFOCount()) < 3);

            DEBUG_PRINT(F("Current FIFO count="));
            DEBUG_PRINTLN(fifoCount);
            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Reading FIFO data..."));
            getFIFOBytes(fifoBuffer, fifoCount);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Reading interrupt status..."));

            DEBUG_PRINT(F("Current interrupt status="));
            DEBUG_PRINTLNF(getIntStatus(), HEX);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Reading final memory update 6/7 (function unknown)..."));
            for (j = 0; j < 4 || j < dmpUpdate[2] + 3; j++, pos++) dmpUpdate[j] = pgm_read_byte(&dmpUpdates[pos]);
            readMemoryBlock(dmpUpdate + 3, dmpUpdate[2], dmpUpdate[0], dmpUpdate[1]);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Waiting for FIFO count > 2..."));
            while ((fifoCount = getFIFOCount()) < 3);

            DEBUG_PRINT(F("Current FIFO count="));
            DEBUG_PRINTLN(fifoCount);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Reading FIFO data..."));
            getFIFOBytes(fifoBuffer, fifoCount);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Reading interrupt status..."));

            DEBUG_PRINT(F("Current interrupt status="));
            DEBUG_PRINTLNF(getIntStatus(), HEX);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Writing final memory update 7/7 (function unknown)..."));
            for (j = 0; j < 4 || j < dmpUpdate[2] + 3; j++, pos++) dmpUpdate[j] = pgm_read_byte(&dmpUpdates[pos]);
            writeMemoryBlock(dmpUpdate + 3, dmpUpdate[2], dmpUpdate[0], dmpUpdate[1]);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("DMP is good to go! Finally."));

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Disabling DMP (you turn it on later)..."));
            setDMPEnabled(false);

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Setting up internal 42-byte (default) DMP packet buffer..."));
            dmpPacketSize = 42;
            /*if ((dmpPacketBuffer = (uint8_t *)malloc(42)) == 0) {
                return 3; // TODO: proper error code for no memory
            }*/

            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("Resetting FIFO and clearing INT status one last time..."));
            resetFIFO();
            getIntStatus();
        } else {
            DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("ERROR! DMP configuration verification failed."));
            return 2; // configuration block loading failed
        }
    } else {
        DEBUG_PRINTLN(F("ERROR! DMP code verification failed."));
        return 1; // main binary block loading failed
    }
    return 0; // success
}

bool MPU6050::dmpPacketAvailable() {
    return getFIFOCount() >= dmpGetFIFOPacketSize();
}

// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSetFIFORate(uint8_t fifoRate);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetFIFORate();
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetSampleStepSizeMS();
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetSampleFrequency();
// int32_t MPU6050::dmpDecodeTemperature(int8_t tempReg);

//uint8_t MPU6050::dmpRegisterFIFORateProcess(inv_obj_func func, int16_t priority);
//uint8_t MPU6050::dmpUnregisterFIFORateProcess(inv_obj_func func);
//uint8_t MPU6050::dmpRunFIFORateProcesses();

// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendQuaternion(uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendGyro(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendLinearAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendLinearAccelInWorld(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendControlData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendSensorData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendExternalSensorData(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendGravity(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendPacketNumber(uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendQuantizedAccel(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSendEIS(uint_fast16_t elements, uint_fast16_t accuracy);

uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetAccel(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    if (packet == 0) packet = dmpPacketBuffer;
    data[0] = (((uint32_t)packet[28] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[29] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[30] << 8) | packet[31]);
    data[1] = (((uint32_t)packet[32] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[33] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[34] << 8) | packet[35]);
    data[2] = (((uint32_t)packet[36] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[37] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[38] << 8) | packet[39]);
    return 0;
}
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetAccel(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    if (packet == 0) packet = dmpPacketBuffer;
    data[0] = (packet[28] << 8) | packet[29];
    data[1] = (packet[32] << 8) | packet[33];
    data[2] = (packet[36] << 8) | packet[37];
    return 0;
}
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetAccel(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    if (packet == 0) packet = dmpPacketBuffer;
    v -> x = (packet[28] << 8) | packet[29];
    v -> y = (packet[32] << 8) | packet[33];
    v -> z = (packet[36] << 8) | packet[37];
    return 0;
}
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetQuaternion(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    if (packet == 0) packet = dmpPacketBuffer;
    data[0] = (((uint32_t)packet[0] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[1] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[2] << 8) | packet[3]);
    data[1] = (((uint32_t)packet[4] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[5] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[6] << 8) | packet[7]);
    data[2] = (((uint32_t)packet[8] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[9] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[10] << 8) | packet[11]);
    data[3] = (((uint32_t)packet[12] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[13] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[14] << 8) | packet[15]);
    return 0;
}
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetQuaternion(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    if (packet == 0) packet = dmpPacketBuffer;
    data[0] = ((packet[0] << 8) | packet[1]);
    data[1] = ((packet[4] << 8) | packet[5]);
    data[2] = ((packet[8] << 8) | packet[9]);
    data[3] = ((packet[12] << 8) | packet[13]);
    return 0;
}
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetQuaternion(Quaternion *q, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    int16_t qI[4];
    uint8_t status = dmpGetQuaternion(qI, packet);
    if (status == 0) {
        q -> w = (float)qI[0] / 16384.0f;
        q -> x = (float)qI[1] / 16384.0f;
        q -> y = (float)qI[2] / 16384.0f;
        q -> z = (float)qI[3] / 16384.0f;
        return 0;
    }
    return status; // int16 return value, indicates error if this line is reached
}
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGet6AxisQuaternion(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetRelativeQuaternion(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetGyro(int32_t *data, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    if (packet == 0) packet = dmpPacketBuffer;
    data[0] = (((uint32_t)packet[16] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[17] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[18] << 8) | packet[19]);
    data[1] = (((uint32_t)packet[20] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[21] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[22] << 8) | packet[23]);
    data[2] = (((uint32_t)packet[24] << 24) | ((uint32_t)packet[25] << 16) | ((uint32_t)packet[26] << 8) | packet[27]);
    return 0;
}
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetGyro(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    if (packet == 0) packet = dmpPacketBuffer;
    data[0] = (packet[16] << 8) | packet[17];
    data[1] = (packet[20] << 8) | packet[21];
    data[2] = (packet[24] << 8) | packet[25];
    return 0;
}
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetGyro(VectorInt16 *v, const uint8_t* packet) {
    // TODO: accommodate different arrangements of sent data (ONLY default supported now)
    if (packet == 0) packet = dmpPacketBuffer;
    v -> x = (packet[16] << 8) | packet[17];
    v -> y = (packet[20] << 8) | packet[21];
    v -> z = (packet[24] << 8) | packet[25];
    return 0;
}
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSetLinearAccelFilterCoefficient(float coef);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetLinearAccel(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetLinearAccel(VectorInt16 *v, VectorInt16 *vRaw, VectorFloat *gravity) {
    // get rid of the gravity component (+1g = +8192 in standard DMP FIFO packet, sensitivity is 2g)
    v -> x = vRaw -> x - gravity -> x*8192;
    v -> y = vRaw -> y - gravity -> y*8192;
    v -> z = vRaw -> z - gravity -> z*8192;
    return 0;
}
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetLinearAccelInWorld(VectorInt16 *v, VectorInt16 *vReal, Quaternion *q) {
    // rotate measured 3D acceleration vector into original state
    // frame of reference based on orientation quaternion
    memcpy(v, vReal, sizeof(VectorInt16));
    v -> rotate(q);
    return 0;
}
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetGyroAndAccelSensor(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetGyroSensor(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetControlData(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetTemperature(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetGravity(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetGravity(int16_t *data, const uint8_t* packet) {
    /* +1g corresponds to +8192, sensitivity is 2g. */
    int16_t qI[4];
    uint8_t status = dmpGetQuaternion(qI, packet);
    data[0] = ((int32_t)qI[1] * qI[3] - (int32_t)qI[0] * qI[2]) / 16384;
    data[1] = ((int32_t)qI[0] * qI[1] + (int32_t)qI[2] * qI[3]) / 16384;
    data[2] = ((int32_t)qI[0] * qI[0] - (int32_t)qI[1] * qI[1]
           - (int32_t)qI[2] * qI[2] + (int32_t)qI[3] * qI[3]) / (2 * 16384);
    return status;
}

uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetGravity(VectorFloat *v, Quaternion *q) {
    v -> x = 2 * (q -> x*q -> z - q -> w*q -> y);
    v -> y = 2 * (q -> w*q -> x + q -> y*q -> z);
    v -> z = q -> w*q -> w - q -> x*q -> x - q -> y*q -> y + q -> z*q -> z;
    return 0;
}
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetUnquantizedAccel(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetQuantizedAccel(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetExternalSensorData(long *data, int size, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetEIS(long *data, const uint8_t* packet);

uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetEuler(float *data, Quaternion *q) {
    data[0] = atan2(2*q -> x*q -> y - 2*q -> w*q -> z, 2*q -> w*q -> w + 2*q -> x*q -> x - 1);   // psi
    data[1] = -asin(2*q -> x*q -> z + 2*q -> w*q -> y);                              // theta
    data[2] = atan2(2*q -> y*q -> z - 2*q -> w*q -> x, 2*q -> w*q -> w + 2*q -> z*q -> z - 1);   // phi
    return 0;
}

#ifdef USE_OLD_DMPGETYAWPITCHROLL
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetYawPitchRoll(float *data, Quaternion *q, VectorFloat *gravity) {
    // yaw: (about Z axis)
    data[0] = atan2(2*q -> x*q -> y - 2*q -> w*q -> z, 2*q -> w*q -> w + 2*q -> x*q -> x - 1);
    // pitch: (nose up/down, about Y axis)
    data[1] = atan(gravity -> x / sqrt(gravity -> y*gravity -> y + gravity -> z*gravity -> z));
    // roll: (tilt left/right, about X axis)
    data[2] = atan(gravity -> y / sqrt(gravity -> x*gravity -> x + gravity -> z*gravity -> z));
    return 0;
}
#else
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetYawPitchRoll(float *data, Quaternion *q, VectorFloat *gravity) {
    // yaw: (about Z axis)
    data[0] = atan2(2*q -> x*q -> y - 2*q -> w*q -> z, 2*q -> w*q -> w + 2*q -> x*q -> x - 1);
    // pitch: (nose up/down, about Y axis)
    data[1] = atan2(gravity -> x , sqrt(gravity -> y*gravity -> y + gravity -> z*gravity -> z));
    // roll: (tilt left/right, about X axis)
    data[2] = atan2(gravity -> y , gravity -> z);
    if (gravity -> z < 0) {
        if(data[1] > 0) {
            data[1] = PI - data[1];
        } else {
            data[1] = -PI - data[1];
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
#endif

// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetAccelFloat(float *data, const uint8_t* packet);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpGetQuaternionFloat(float *data, const uint8_t* packet);

uint8_t MPU6050::dmpProcessFIFOPacket(const unsigned char *dmpData) {
    /*for (uint8_t k = 0; k < dmpPacketSize; k++) {
        if (dmpData[k] < 0x10) Serial.print("0");
        Serial.print(dmpData[k], HEX);
        Serial.print(" ");
    }
    Serial.print("\n");*/
    //Serial.println((uint16_t)dmpPacketBuffer);
    return 0;
}
uint8_t MPU6050::dmpReadAndProcessFIFOPacket(uint8_t numPackets, uint8_t *processed) {
    uint8_t status;
    uint8_t buf[dmpPacketSize];
    for (uint8_t i = 0; i < numPackets; i++) {
        // read packet from FIFO
        getFIFOBytes(buf, dmpPacketSize);

        // process packet
        if ((status = dmpProcessFIFOPacket(buf)) > 0) return status;
       
        // increment external process count variable, if supplied
        if (processed != 0) (*processed)++;
    }
    return 0;
}

// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSetFIFOProcessedCallback(void (*func) (void));

// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpInitFIFOParam();
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpCloseFIFO();
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpSetGyroDataSource(uint_fast8_t source);
// uint8_t MPU6050::dmpDecodeQuantizedAccel();
// uint32_t MPU6050::dmpGetGyroSumOfSquare();
// uint32_t MPU6050::dmpGetAccelSumOfSquare();
// void MPU6050::dmpOverrideQuaternion(long *q);
uint16_t MPU6050::dmpGetFIFOPacketSize() {
    return dmpPacketSize;
}

#endif /* _MPU6050_6AXIS_MOTIONAPPS20_H_ */
That was the motion apps and is the final piece.
 
Last edited:

ksj

Blooded
The main code ties everything together. The include statements reference the other libraries. Capitolisation and Case matters in names. The I2CDEV library and MPU and 6 axis libraries are part of Jeff Rowberg's setup. Case and capitolisation and spelling matters. From the research I have done to this point this is the only code piece that uses the mpu6050 and interrupts.
 

ksj

Blooded
OK. I am doing more digging on the code and why things are a little buggy or finicky. Apparently with interrupts serial.print is to be avoided as is use of the delay function. You must use the millis(); function instead.


Some reading also indicates that button presses and such should be in separate functions that reference back in the run loop function. AVR calls would best be avoided as they are only read once every 10 or so seconds.

Further reading indicates that the libraries in use are rather buggy and not being actively updated by the developer as he has tried to hand off support of his libraries.
Change this code piece in the main script:
if ((mpuIntStatus & 0x10) || fifoCount == 16384) <-- The higher number keeps you from having buffer overflows. for the metro and uno you will have to use a lower value such as 500.

And:
You can reduce the DMP output frequency by increasing the rate divisor value inside the ..._MotionApps20.h file:
i2cdevlib/Arduino/MPU6050/MPU6050_6Axis_MotionApps20.h
Lines 272 to 274 in 900b8f9
#ifndef MPU6050_DMP_FIFO_RATE_DIVISOR
#define MPU6050_DMP_FIFO_RATE_DIVISOR 0x01 or 0x04
#endif
 
Last edited:

ksj

Blooded
I have done more digging and the codebase used has some serious bugs. I will see if I can build back up from scratch as the system was not really functional with multiple hardware pieces and my research indicates that library development is dead and multiple folks are having issues with the mpu-6050 working reliably in integrated setups. Something to do with lack of a capacitor and erratic readings. Adafruit has some different offerings and I will see what options I have to get a more reliable setup.
 

ksj

Blooded
OK as far as I can find your code works if you are only using a single button. For me the two button approach will not work with this board. I am also looking at a different board that can do the same things and can post updates on this post once I get it.

This unit appears to have processing built-in to the board itself and takes the calculations out of the mix:

Adafruit has a full online support forum that is extremely helpful.
 

ksj

Blooded
OK, I got the board in and have it working. But per this write up:

I will need to get a xlr8 board to help address the jitter issues.
 

Venandipredator

Unblooded
I am finally starting my costume and this will be the plasma caster,I don’t know anything about programming and that stuff but this will help me learn!
 
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